Table 2

Meta-analysis of the impact of global cardiovascular risk assessment on cardiovascular disease morbidity, mortality, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and smoking cessation

OutcomePatient directedProvider directedPatient and provider directedOverall effect estimate
CVD morbidityEffect estimate
I2 (%)
Quality (GRADE)
Mortality (CVD-related or all-cause)Effect estimate
I2 (%)
Quality (GRADE)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)Effect estimate (MD) (95% CI)−4.88 (−8.57 to −1.19)−1.14 (−2.09 to −0.19)−2.77 (−5.91 to 0.37)−2.22 (−3.49 to −0.95)
I2 (%)0467666
Quality (GRADE)very low (●○○○)low (●●○○)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)Effect estimate (MD) (95% CI)−0.07 (−0.13 to −0.02)−0.01 (−0.08 to 0.06)−0.26 (−0.38 to −0.15)−0.11 (−0.20 to −0.02)
I2 (%)0single study072
Quality (GRADE)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)Effect estimate (MD) (95% CI)−0.15 (−0.27 to −0.03)−0.23 (−0.47 to 0.01)−0.15 (−0.26 to −0.05)
I2 (%)58single study47
Quality (GRADE)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)very low (●○○○)
Smoking cessation (risk of quitting)Effect estimate (RR) (95% CI)1.53 (1.07 to 2.19)1.90 (0.43 to 8.29)0.30 (0.01 to 7.07)1.62 (1.08 to 2.43)
 I2 (%)057single study17
Quality (GRADE)low (●●○○)very low (●○○○)moderate (●●●○)low (●●○○)
  • Subgroup analyses were performed by interventions targeting the patient, the provider or both.

  • LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MD, mean difference, the difference of the mean differences from baseline to follow-up of the intervention arm compared with the control arm; RR, risk ratio.