Table 2

Determinants of in-hospital mortality and hospitalisation costs

Dependent variablesIn-hospital mortalityHospitalisation costs
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 3
Independent variablesORUnstandardised coefficients (US$)
Patient characteristics
 Women (reference category: men)0.9231.017−205−10936
 Age (reference category: 20–59 years)
  60–69 years1.3341.307313222250
  70–79 years2.257***2.661***−189−6018
  80–89 years4.146***6.009***−1181***−827***−454*
  ≥90 years7.086***12.751***−2027***−1400***−678**
 Route of admission (reference category: scheduled)
  Emergency with ambulance use1.185*0.8911201***772***521***
  Emergency without ambulance use0.9160.807*530***422**276*
 NYHA functional class (reference category: class II)
  Class III2.121***2.011***608***467***494***
  Class IV6.812***5.929***1121***727***635***
  Ischaemic heart disease0.573***0.522***1520***1484***409***
  Atrial fibrillation/flutter0.561***0.604***−145333**457***
  Fatal arrhythmia1.637**1.0815635***4597***4547***
Postadmission treatments indicating disease severity
 Disease severity classes† (reference category: no target treatments provided)
  Catecholamine use only5.543***1740***1565***
  Intubation with no catecholamine use12.699***1253*1162*
  Intubation or catecholamine use20.966***1681***1610***
  Intra-aortic balloon pumping‡8.062***22 628***13 854***
  Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support§42.048***15 421***8360***
 Dialysis-related procedures1.729***2739***2117***
 Blood transfusion1.383**4186***3884***
Other postadmission high-cost examinations and treatments
 Percutaneous coronary intervention13 842***
 Single-photon emission CT3324***
 C-statistics (95% CIs)0.8050.870
  • Model 1: independent variables included only patient characteristics and condition on admission; model 2: independent variables included postadmission treatments that may indicate disease severity in addition to those of model 1; model 3: independent variables included other high-cost examinations and treatments in addition to those of model 2.

  • ***p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05.

  • †These six disease-severity classes are based on hierarchical and mutually exclusive combinations.

  • ‡Regardless of intubation or catecholamine use.

  • §Regardless of intra-aortic balloon pumping, intubation or catecholamine use.

  • NYHA, New York Heart Association.