Table 2

Crude and adjusted estimates of effect of psychosocial factors and alcohol use on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births

 Small for gestational age (SGA)Preterm birth
Risk ratio (95% CI)Risk ratio (95% CI)
No. of live birthsNo. of SGACrudeAdjusted*No. of pretermCrudeAdjusted*
Depressive symptoms
 Normal514511.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)561.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Depression60111.71 (0.84 to 3.47)1.52 (0.70 to 3.29)60.58 (0.24 to 1.38)0.46 (0.18 to 1.15)
Intimate partner violence
 No violence456521.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)701.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Physical8490.90 (0.43 to 1.89)0.85 (0.39 to 1.89)151.18 (0.64 to 2.17)1.17 (0.62 to 2.20)
 Sexual1321.36 (0.29 to 6.25)1.57 (0.31 to 7.85)0–†–†
 Psychological84101.05 (0.51 to 2.15)1.04 (0.49 to 2.21)120.91 (0.47 to 1.75)0.95 (0.48 to 1.89)
 Any violence115161.25 (0.68 to 2.29)1.20 (0.63 to 2.27)150.88 (0.48 to 1.62)0.89 (0.47 to 1.66)
Non-specific psychological distress
 Well552651.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)831.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Mild distress2620.57 (0.13 to 2.45)0.69 (0.15 to 3.15)20.45 (0.10 to 1.92)0.44 (0.10 to 1.96)
 Moderate distress910.88 (0.11 to 7.19)0.46 (0.05 to 4.02)32.39 (0.61 to 9.43)1.35 (0.30 to 6.01)
 Severe distress110–†–†0–†–†
Alcohol use
 Low441411.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)661.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Hazardous158272.06 (1.21 to 3.48)2.00 (1.13 to 3.54)220.93 (0.55 to 1.56)0.89 (0.51 to 1.53)
  • *Adjusted for maternal age, socio-economic status, BMI, hemoglobin level, parity, cd4 count at enrolment, and viral load at enrolment.

  • †Model does not converge, few or no outcome in the exposure category.