Table 1

Characteristics of study participants at enrolment (N=571)

N* (%) or mean (SD)
Maternal characteristics
Age, years28.34 (5.33)
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting229 (40.11)
 Unmarried342 (59.89)
Education
 Did not finish secondary420 (73.56)
 Completed secondary151 (26.44)
Employment status
 Unemployed354 (61.89)
 Employed217 (38.11)
BMI, kg/m2
 <18.53 (0.64)
 18.5 to <25106 (22.70)
 25 to <30149 (31.91)
 ≥30209 (44.75)
Height, cm
 <14513 (2.78)
 145–14936 (7.69)
 150–154104 (22.22)
 ≥155315 (67.31)
Parity
 0102 (17.86)
 1235 (41.16)
 2165 (28.90)
 ≥369 (12.08)
Haemoglobin (g/L)
 Normal (≥110)283 (51.18)
 Mild anaemia (100–109)223 (40.33)
 Moderate anaemia (70–99)45 (8.14)
 Severe anaemia (<70)2 (0.36)
CD4 cell count (cells/µL)
 ≤200103 (18.56)
 201–350192 (34.59)
 351–500123 (22.16)
 >500137 (24.68)
Viral load, log10 copies/mL
 <3.0315 (56.25)
 >3.0–4.031 (5.54)
 >4.0–5.015 (2.68)
 >5.0199 (35.54)
ART regimen
 Option A156 (27.45)
 Option B+415 (72.55)
 Gestational age at ART initiation in weeks, median (IQR)21 (16–26)
Adherence to ART, missed doses/month
 0395 (69.27)
 1–3148 (25.91)
 >328 (4.90)
Violence against women
 Physical82 (14.36)
 Sexual13 (2.28)
 Psychological81 (14.19)
 Any violence115 (20.14)
Depressive symptoms: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
 Normal: score <13509 (89.14)
 Probable depression: score 13–1419 (3.33)
 Major depression: score >1543 (7.53)
Non-specific psychological distress, Kessler-10
 Well: <2025 (91.94)
 Mild distress: 20–2427 (4.73)
 Moderate distress: 25–299 (1.58)
 Severe distress: ≥3010 (1.75)
 Heavy/hazardous drinking in women (AUDIT-C score ≥3)149 (26.09)
Infant characteristics
Normal birth weight (≥2500 g)476 (83.36)
Moderate low birth weight (2000–2500 g)54 (9.46)
Very low birth weight (<2000 g)41 (7.18)
Gestational age in weeks
 Term (≥37 weeks)490 (85.81)
 Late preterm (34–37 weeks)44 (7.71)
 Early preterm (<34 weeks)37 (6.48)
Weight for gestational age
 Appropriate for gestational age (AGA)503 (88.10)
 Small for gestational age (SGA)68 (11.90)
  • *Totals may not add up to 571 due to missing values.

  • ART, antiretroviral treatment; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; CD4, cluster of differentiation 4.