Table 1

Characteristics of included systematic reviews/meta-analyses

Author (year)Databases searchedPopulationNon-pharmacological interventionPrimary studiesOutcome
Aguirre 2013MEDLINE, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, Lilacs, trial registers, grey literatureParticipants who had a diagnosis of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia mixed Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, other types of dementia), including all levels of cognitive impairmentCognitive stimulation15 RCTsMood, quality of life, well-being, ADL, communication, behaviour, neuropsychiatric symptoms and social interaction
Alves 2013MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, metaRegister of Clinical Trials, OVID all, EBM ReviewsPatients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (without mild cognitive impairment, mixed Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia such as frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies)Memory-training program; attention-stimulating activities; computerized ‘cognitive training’4 studiesCognitive functioning; ADL; memory Symptoms; finger tapping test; depressive symptoms; QoL; reaction time; screening of mental status; neuropsychiatric symptoms
Bernabei 2013MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFOElderly patients affected by dementia or psychiatric disordersAnimal-assisted interventions10 studies on BPSD (3 case–control and 7 repeated measures design)Any psychiatric disorder
Blake 2013PubMed, Science Direct, the Cochrane Library and Web of KnowledgeAdults diagnosed with dementia who have depressive symptomsReminiscence group therapy4 studiesChange in level of depressive symptoms
Carrion 2013MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL, the Cochrane Library, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, Trip database, HEALTHSTAR, CINHAL and PsycINFOOlder people diagnosed as having Alzheimer's disease or probable Alzheimer's diseaseCognition-oriented care approaches: 1.Reality orientation; 2. Skills trainingReality orientation: 9 RCTs;Skills training: 8 RCTsCognitive function; behavioural symptoms and mood
Chaudhury 2013MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, Web of Science, and Simon Fraser University library catalogueLong-term facility residents with dementiaSupportive dining environment21 studies included: light therapy (1 study); music therapy (3 studies)Physiological and sociopsychological aspects of dining, including caloric intake, enjoyment in eating and social interaction
Collet 2010MEDLINE, PsycINFO and PubMedNursing home patients suffering from either somatic illness or dementia combined with psychiatric disorders or severe behavioural problemsPsychiatric care and nursing home care combination8 RCTsPsychosis and depression, increase in global functioning, behaviour disorders, cognition and ADL
Eggenberger 2013MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Gerolit, Web of SciencePeople with dementia; professional and family caregiversCommunication skills training by means of face-to-face interaction12 RCTsQoL, social interactions
Forbes 2014MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS+several Registries, proceedings+other sitesPeople with dementiaLight therapy5 studies met the inclusion criteria—only 3 were included in the analyses because of inappropriate reportedSleep, behaviour, mood, and cognitive disturbances associated with dementia
Forrester 2014MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS+several Registries, proceedings+other sitesPeople with dementiaAromatherapy2 RCTsAgitation, behavioural symptoms, quality of life and adverse effects
Fung 2012MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, SCOPUSParticipants with dementiaAromatherapy11 studies (5 RCTs; 6 controlled trials)Behavioural problems
Gonzalez 2014MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase and ScopusPeople with dementiaSensory gardens and horticultural activities2 RCTsAgitation levels; cognitive status
Guzman-Garcia 2013MEDLINE, AgeInfo, EBM Reviews EBSCO-CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web, LILACS, SCOPUS ZETOC; reference lists; EthOS-Beta; ACER; Google;+People with dementia living in long-term care homesDance movement therapy; dance therapy; Psychomotor dance-based; Social dancing10 studies (1 RCT)Not specified
Kiepe 2012MEDLINE and PsycINFOPatients with mental illnessDance therapy1 study (RCT) for dementiaAny physical and mental outcomes
Kim 2012MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest Medical Library, and Cochrane and OTPersons with dementiaOccupational therapy9 studiesBehavioural problems and depression
Kverno 2009MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASEIndividuals diagnosed with advanced dementiaAny non-pharmacological intervention460 primary studiesNeuropsychiatric symptoms
Lai 2009MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHLPatients with a confirmed diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer's disease or related disordersSpecial care units8 non-randomised studies (0 RCT)Behavioural problems, mood, use of restraints and psychotropic medication
Livingston 2014MEDLINE; Web of Knowledge; EMBASE; British Nursing Index; the Health Technology
Assessment programme database; PsycINFO; NHS Evidence; System for Information on Grey Literature
Participants with dementiaSensory, psychological and behavioural
160 primary studiesAgitation
McDermott 2013MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, J Music Therapy, and Nordic Journal of Music TherapyParticipants with dementiaMusic therapy15 studies (6 RCTs; 4 non-randomised trials; 5 before–after studiesBehavioural, psychological aspects, hormonal and physiological changes, social and relational aspects of music therapy
Moniz-Cook 2012MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo and LILACS;+People with dementia, irrespective of its cause or diagnostic subtype, with reported BPSD or ‘behaviours that challenge’, receiving support or treatment from mental health workers, care staff or family or other informal caregiversFormulation-led individualised interventions targeting reduction in the person's distress and/or resolution of the caregivers’ management difficulties18 trialsChallenging behaviours (eg, verbal and physical aggression, restlessness) and mood (depression).Changes in caregiver self-report of reaction to challenging behaviours.
Moyle 2013MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Health Reference Center AcademicOlder people with dementia:Massage therapyOf 13 studies identified only 1 satisfied the quality of the inclusion criteriaAgitated behaviour
O'Neill 2011MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFOAdults with mild, moderate, or severe dementiaNon-pharmacological treatments28 systematic reviewsBehavioural symptoms of dementia
Olazaran 2010MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, Lilacs and the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized RegisterPeople with Alzheimer's disease and related disordersAny non-pharmacological intervention213Cognition; institutionalization; ADL; behaviour; mood; QoL; psychological well-being
Padilla 2011MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, AgeLine, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and HealthSTAR, OT Seeker, and Allied and Complementary
Medicine+reference list
People with Alzheimer's disease and related dementiasEnvironment-based interventions; multisensory approaches; other interventions1 cross-overall trial (environmental-based intervention)Performance, affect and behaviour
Potter 2011MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, the Cochrane Library, the UK National Research Register, Current Controlled TrialsOlder people with dementiaStrength and flexibility; strength and balance Tai Chi classes sitting and standing; walking; stretching; seated exercises; balance training; endurance; aerobic training13 RCTsPhysical functioning, quality of life anddepression
Robinson 2011MEDLINE; EBM reviews; AMED; BNI; CINAHL; EMBASENot specifiedAcupressure1 RCT (of 71 acupressure studies)Any outcome
Salami 2011MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central RegisterPeople with Alzheimer's diseaseAny treatment option for sleep disturbance not attributable to other clinical conditions9 RCTsSleep disturbance
Seitz 2012MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and Google ScholarPeople with dementiaAny non-pharmacological intervention40 studiesNeuropsychiatric symptoms
Subramaniam 2012MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of KnowledgePeople with dementiaReminiscence therapy5 RCTsPsychosocial benefits
Thune-Boyle 2012MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFOPeople with dementiaExercise therapy2 RCTsBehavioural and psychological symptoms
Ueda 2013MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFOPeople with dementiaMusic therapy18 of 20 studies considered agitation or anxiety (9 CCT; 9 RCTs)Behavioral and psychological symptoms; ADL; cognitive function
Vasionytė 2013JSTOR, EBSCO, ERIC, SCIRUS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and ProQuest, the journal databases SAGE PUB and Cambridge journalsPatients with dementiaMusic therapy3 RCTsAffective, behavioural, cognitive and physiological outcomes
Vasse 2010PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science and the Cochrane libraryPeople with dementiaA walking program combined with conversation, group validation therapy, life review programs, cognitive stimulation therapy, activity therapy and staff education9 RCTsCommunication between residents with dementia and care staff; neuropsychiatric symptoms of residents with dementia.
Wall 2010MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFOOlder people with dementiaMusic therapy4 RCTsBehaviour and well-being
Whear 2014MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, HMIC, AMED; Cochrane Library; CINAHL; British Nursing Index; ASSIA; Social Science Citation Index; EThOS; Social Care Online and OpenGrey November 2012.Elderly residents with dementiaMealtime interventions categorized into four types: music, changes to food service, dining environment alteration, and group conversation11 studies (7 time series repeated measures; 3 pre-post study design; 1 controlled clinical trial)Behavioural symptoms (anxiety, agitation, aggression)
Woods 2012MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS, ongoing trial databases and grey literature sourcesPeople with dementia and their caregiversCognitive stimulation15 RCTsCognitive functioning; mood; QoL; ADL; behavioural symptoms; neuropsychiatric symptoms
Yu 2009MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane LibraryPeople with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and dementiaCognitive training7 RCTsAny dementia symptoms in early-stage Alzheimer's disease and related dementia.
Zimmerman 2013MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, AgeLine, and PsycINFOPeople with dementia in nursing homes and other residential long-term care settingsEffective characteristics of residential long-term care14 studies: 4 prospective cohort studies, 9 RCTs, 1 non-randomized controlled trialHealth and psychosocial outcomes
  • ADL, activities of daily living; QoL, quality of life; RCT, randomised controlled trial.