Table 3

Logistic regression models with ORs and 95% CIs and p values (n=217) for occurrence of metabolic syndrome (according to International Diabetes Federation criteria) by its explanatory variables (group, age, body mass index and five gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors)

Univariable logistic regression modelsMultivariable logistic regression model 1Multivariable logistic regression model 2
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Group (reference=healthy control)
Intervention3.44 (0. 71 to 16.8)0.131.64 (0.31 to 8.79)0.561.29 (0.23 to 7.18)0.77
Usual care3.15 (0.65 to 15.3)0.161.39 (0.26 to 7.41)0.701.17 (0.21 to 6.41)0.85
Early GDM21.0 (4.47 to 98.7)<0.0019.18 (1.82 to 46.20)0.0077.75 (1.50 to 40.0)0.014
Age (early pregnancy, continuous)1.07 (1.00 to 1.15)0.052
BMI (prepregnancy, continuous)1.20 (1.11 to 1.29)<0.0011.17 (1.08 to 1.28)<0.0011.19 (1.09 to 1.31)<0.001
GDM risk factors during early pregnancy
BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (prepregnancy)8.06 (3.21 to 20.2)<0.001
A macrosomic baby (≥4500 g) in any previous pregnancy0.74 (0.09 to 6.34)0.78
GDM or any sign of glucose intolerance in any previous pregnancy3.21 (1.34 to 7.69)<0.012.07 (0.74 to 5.78)0.17
Type 1 or 2 diabetes in first-degree or second-degree relatives1.04 (0.52 to 2.09)0.91
Age ≥40 years0.74 (0.09 to 6.34)0.78
• GDM, gestational diabetes; BMI, body mass index.

• Univariable logistic regression models: separate models for each explanatory variables without adjustments.

• Multivariable logistic regression model 1: adjusted for one explanatory variable (BMI).

• Multivariable logistic regression model 2: adjusted for two explanatory variables (BMI, and GDM or any sign of glucose intolerance in any previous pregnancy).