Table 3

OR and 95% CI for the association between social integration and self-rated health, Building a New Life in Australia project, 2012–2013

FactorsGeneral healthPhysical functioningRole-physicalBodily painSerious mental illness
OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)*OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)*
Economic integration
Financial hardships
 0RefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 10.7 (0.6 to 0.9)**0.7 (0.6 to 1.0)*0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.4 to 0.7)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)***0.6 (0.4 to 0.7)***1.7 (1.3 to 2.4)**1.5 (1.0 to 2.3)*
 20.5 (0.4 to 0.7)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)***2.8 (2.1 to 3.9)***2.5 (1.7 to 3.8)***
 ≥30.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.5)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)***0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***3.6 (2.6 to 4.9)***4.4 (2.9 to 6.7)***
Main source of income
 OtherRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Salary0.7 (0.4 to 1.1)0.8 (0.3 to 2.0)2.7 (1.6 to 4.5)***2.6 (1.2 to 5.8)*1.7 (1.0 to 2.9)1.4 (0.6 to 3.0)1.6 (0.9 to 2.6)1.6 (0.7 to 3.5)1.1 (0.4 to 2.7)1.0 (0.3 to 3.7)
 Government payments1.6 (0.9 to 3.0)1.4 (0.7 to 2.7)1.0 (0.7 to 1.6)2.5 (1.4 to 4.4)**0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)1.7 (1.0 to 3.0)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)1.9 (1.1 to 3.2)*2.0 (0.9 to 4.4)0.7 (0.3 to 1.9)
Employment status
 UnemployedRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Employed5.9 (3.4 to 10.3)***1.6 (0.8 to 3.4)4.2 (2.8 to 6.2)***1.3 (0.7 to 2.4)3.8 (2.5 to 5.6)***1.8 (0.9 to 3.4)2.7 (1.9 to 3.8)***1.2 (0.6 to 2.2)0.3 (0.2 to 0.6)**0.8 (0.3 to 2.4)
Current housing arrangement
 OtherRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Temporary1.6 (0.8 to 3.1)1.8 (0.7 to 4.7)1.4 (0.7 to 2.5)1.2 (0.5 to 2.9)0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)0.5 (0.2 to 1.3)1.0 (0.6 to 1.9)0.8 (0.4 to 2.0)0.9 (0.4 to 2.2)1.0 (0.3 to 3.4)
 <6-month lease/contract1.1 (0.6 to 1.9)1.7 (0.7 to 4.0)1.1 (0.6 to 1.9)1.2 (0.6 to 2.8)0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)0.5 (0.2 to 1.2)0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.9 (0.4 to 2.0)1.2 (0.5 to 2.7)0.8 (0.3 to 2.7)
 >6-month lease/contract1.1 (0.6 to 2.0)1.8 (0.8 to 4.4)0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)1.0 (0.5 to 2.3)0.6 (0.3 to 1.1)0.4 (0.2 to 1.0)*0.8 (0.5 to 1.4)0.8 (0.4 to 1.9)0.8 (0.3 to 1.8)0.6 (0.2 to 2.1)
Acculturation
 Language proficiency improvement1.2 (1.2 to 1.3)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)**1.2 (1.1 to 1.1)***1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)1.2 (1.1 to 1.2)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)*1.2 (1.1 to 1.2)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)*0.8 (0.8 to 0.9)***0.9 (0.9 to 1.0)*
 Self to sufficiency1.1 (1.1 to 1.1)***1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)***1.1 (1.1 to 1.1)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)***1.1 (1.1 to 1.1)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)***1.1 (1.1 to 1.1)***1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)***0.9 (0.9 to 0.9)***0.9 (0.9 to 1.0)**
Participation in study or job training in Australia
 YesRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 No0.7 (0.5 to 0.8)**1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)0.8 (0.6 to 1.0)*1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)**1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)**1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)
Self-identity
Sense belong in Australia
 AlwaysRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Most of time0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.8 (0.6 to 1.0)0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)**0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)*1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)**1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)**
 Never0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)***1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)***1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)2.9 (2.2 to 3.8)***1.9 (1.3 to 2.9)**
Feel welcomed in Australia
 AlwaysRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Most of time1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)**0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)**0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)**0.7 (0.6 to 0.9)*0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)**0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)**1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)
 Never0.6 (0.5 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.9)**0.5 (0.4 to 0.7)***0.6 (0.4 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)***0.6 (0.4 to 0.8)***0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)***0.5 (0.4 to 0.7)***2.8 (2.1 to 3.7)***1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)*
Experience discrimination
 YesRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 No0.9 (0.6 to 1.3)1.1 (0.7 to 1.8)1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)1.1 (0.7 to 1.5)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)
Social capital
 Capacity of communication with locals1.2 (1.2 to 1.3)***1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)**1.2 (1.1 to 1.2)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)*1.2 (1.2 to 1.2)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)**1.2 (1.2 to 1.2)***1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)0.8 (0.8 to 0.9)***0.9 (0.8 to 1.0)**
 Community support1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)*1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)*1.0 (0.9 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (0.9 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (0.9 to 1.0)1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)
Attend place of worship
 Weekly or more oftenRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Monthly1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)*1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)1.1 (0.9 to 1.5)0.9 (0.7 to 1.3)1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)1.6 (1.0 to 2.6)*
 Rarely1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.8 (0.6 to 1.1)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)0.9 (0.7 to 1.3)1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)*1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.7)1.6 (1.0 to 2.5)
 Never1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)0.8 (0.6 to 1.2)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)*2.1 (1.3 to 3.4)**
Type of friends in Australia
 Do not have any friendRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
 Mostly form my ethnic/religious community1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)*0.9 (0.6 to 1.2)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)*1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)1.3 (1.1 to 1.7)*1.0 (0.7 to 1.3)1.3 (1.1 to 1.7)**1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)***0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)
 Mostly form other ethnic/religious community2.1 (1.3 to 3.6)**1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)1.4 (0.9 to 2.3)0.8 (0.5 to 1.5)1.7 (1.1 to 2.6)*0.9 (0.5 to 1.6)1.6 (1.0 to 2.6)*0.9 (0.5 to 1.6)0.4 (0.2 to 0.7)**0.7 (0.3 to 1.7)
 A mixture1.9 (1.5 to 2.5)***0.8 (0.6 to 1.2)1.6 (1.3 to 2.1)***0.9 (0.7 to 1.3)1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)***1.0 (0.7 to 1.4)1.7 (1.4 to 2.2)***0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)***0.6 (0.4 to 1.0)*
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education level, country of origin, visa subclass, duration of residence in Australia and exposure to traumatic events before arrival in Australia.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; Ref, reference group.