Table 1

Background characteristics of women at 7 years postpartum

Intervention (n=83)Usual care (n=87)Early GDM (n=51)Healthy control (n=68)All (n=289)
Age (years)37.7±4.538.0±4.938.6±4.337.0±5.237.8±4.8
Weight (kg)75.6±17.376.9±13.184.5±16.362.9±7.674.6±15.7
BMI (kg/m2)27.2±5.528.1±5.130.1±5.622.7±2.526.9±5.4
BMI 25–29.9 kg/m217 (20)39 (45)41 (35)12 (18)86 (29)
BMI ≥30 kg/m227 (33)21 (24)23 (45)0 (0)71 (25)
Smoking
 No73 (91)77 (91)45 (94)57 (84)252 (90)
 Occasionally or daily7 (9)8 (9)3 (6)11 (16)29 (10)
Education
 Basic or secondary education25 (31)25 (28)19 (37)20 (31)89 (31)
 Polytechnic education28 (34)40 (46)20 (39)29 (45)117 (41)
 University degree29 (35)23 (26)13 (25)16 (25)81 (28)
Parity2.4±1.02.6±1.22.6±1.62.5±1.02.5±1.2
 18 (10)12 (14)6 (13)6 (9)32 (12)
 2–366 (84)60 (71)35 (74)50 (75)211 (76)
45 (6)12 (14)6 (13)11 (16)34 (12)
GDM risk criteria (at 8–12 weeks' pregnancy)
BMI ≥25 kg/m240 (48)59 (68)39 (78)NA138 (48)
Macrosomic child in any previous pregnancy3 (4)3 (3)5 (10)NA11 (4)
GDM in any previous pregnancy13 (16)7 (8)13 (39)NA33 (12)
Diabetes in first-degree or second-degree relatives53 (64)43 (49)25 (50)NA121 (42)
Age ≥40 years3 (4)5 (6)0 (0)NA8 (3)
  • Means and SDs or frequencies (and proportions) of participants (n=289). BMI, body mass index; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.