Table 2

Summary of community domains and subdomain/s and methodologies for data collection

Community domain and subdomain/sDescriptionPolicy document*Stakeholder interview*Parent focus group*Practitioner focus group*Service survey*Community survey*GIS and park audit†Service information†Community demographics†
Physical domain
1. Public open spaceObjective counts, size, type, quality and proximity to green space (eg, parks), blue space (eg, water bodies such as beaches).† Perceptions of public open space*
2. Public transportObjective counts and proximity to bus, tram, rail/train and ferry stops.†Perceptions of public transport*
3. Traffic exposureObjective exposure to traffic volume (high vs low). Perceptions of traffic exposure*
4. HousingObjective residential density (number of dwellings/residential land area) and proportion of high rise (four or more storeys) vs Low rise.† Perceptions of housing*
5. Destinations and servicesObjective counts of and proximity to places/facilities/destinations such as services, childcare, libraries, community centres and recreation venues.† Perceptions of destinations and services*
6. WalkabilityObjective walkability (density, mixed use, connectivity).† Perceived ease or difficulty of getting to and from destinations and services, that is, how ‘pedestrian friendly’ or ‘walkable’ the community is*
7. Crime/incivilitiesObjective crimes against the person in public or property, total crime rate.† Perceptions of crime*
Social domain
8. Social capital/ties
  a. NetworksBonding, bridging and linking capital, that is, relationships, interactions and connections with people.
  b. ParticipationWhether people participate in events and activities
  c. TrustPersonalised trust (feeling able to trust other people within the community) and generalised trust (feeling able to trust/have confidence in institutions)
  d. Perceptions of community diversityPerceptions of whether the community is homogeneous or diverse
9. Crime
  a. Community response to crimeCommunity response to crime: how people work together within the community in response to crime or perceived crime risk
  b. Parental response to crimeParent perception of crime and safety: the impact of parental views on neighbourhood safety on their parenting behaviour
  c. Perceptions of neighbourhood safetyPerceptions of how safe the community feels
  d. Domestic violence and child protectionPerceptions and rates of domestic violence, and number of children notified in child protection reports
10. Neighbourhood attachment
   a. MobilityIndividual and community mobility and stability
   b. Perceptions of neighbourhood attachmentPerceptions of neighbourhood attachment or how connected they feel to the community
11. Child friendliness
   a. Perceptions of child friendlinessPerceptions of whether people in the community are perceived as being well disposed to children in public places, and whether the community is perceived as a ‘good’ place to raise children
Sociodemographic domain
12. Community sociodemographic statusAs defined by the ABS SEIFA IRSD
13. Community demographicsIncludes: age profile, education, employment, ethnic and cultural diversity, household types, housing affordability, income
Service domain
14. Quality
   a. AccreditationAccreditation and licensing
   b.Perceptions of qualityPerceptions about quality of service, quality of care, welcoming staff, physical condition of service. This refers to how ‘good’ the service is perceived for children and families.
15. Quantity
   a. Number of servicesObjective counts of number of services in the area.† Perceptions of number of services*
   b. Number per capitaObjective number of services per population†
   c. UsageClient use of the service
16. Access to services
   a. Opening hoursOpening hours of the service
   b. CostCost of what clients/patients pay to use the service
   c. CapacityOpen to new clients/patients, number of vacancies
   d. Waiting listsWhether people have to wait to access a service
17. Coordination
   a. Co-locationsWhether the service is co-located with other services
   b. Collaborations/networks/partnershipsPartnerships and collaborations at the service implementation level
Governance domain
18. Context and characteristics
   a. HistoryHistorical factors and events including environmental events that impact on the current arrangements including agenda and priorities, partnerships and collaborations
   b. Multilevel governanceCharacteristics of governance groups and/or community governance practices, including practices for decision-making. This refers to ‘vertical’ governance—that is, between levels of organisations
   c. Priorities, policies and programmesKey policies or programmes relating to children. Agenda and priorities that are currently (or recently) being pursued by policymakers, partnerships and collaborations in the community. Includes mention of priorities not specifically about children
19. Macro/meso policy environment (context)
   a. Role of federal and state government locally, involvement of portfolio staff locallyThe involvement and incidence of Federal and State programmes and requirements in the area
   b. Policies supporting/requiring governance coordinationFederal and State requirements for coordination of governance
20. Representation and demographic effects—local
  a. Citizen involvement in decision-makingTransparent/accountable/responsive structures that have the ability to reflect community-level interests and ensure everyone has the right to have a say. The way that involvement is facilitated in the community including membership of organisations and decision-making bodies. Also references to inclusion or exclusion for groups and/or individuals
21. Decision-making and leadership—local
   a. Common agendaHow is the local agenda agreed and is there general agreement or are there high levels of conflict—specifically referring to partnerships and coordination
   b. Data for decision-makingAny reference to data or evidence used for the purpose of decision-making for policy
   c. Key leadersInvolves individuals and organisations that are making a particular contribution, have a role in decision-making
   d. Resources, rules, roles, structuresLocal arrangements for the coordination of decision-making, policies and programmes and their implementation
  • *Subjective measure.

  • †Objective measure.

  • ABS, Australian Bureau of Statistics; GIS, Geographic Information Systems; IRSD, Index of Relative Advantage and Disadvantage; SEIFA, Socio-economic Index for Areas.