Table 1

Patient characteristics: overall, by region and by season

OverallBy regionp Value
Overall (N=455)Australia and NZ (N=312)SE Asia (N=143)
Demographics
 Age (years, median, IQR)79 (67–87)81 (69–88)73 (63–82)<0.001
 Gender (N, % male, 95% CI)227; 50% (45% to 55%)
Missing data=1
149; 48% (43% to 53%)
Missing data=0
78; 55% (47% to 63%)
Missing data=1
0.12
 Ambulance arrival (N, %, 95% CI)280; 62% (58% to 67%)
Missing data=6
67% (62% to 73%)
Missing data=6
52% (44% to 60%)
Missing data=0
0.002
ComorbiditiesN, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)
Hypertension327; 72% (68% to 76%)
Missing data=1
221; 71% (66% to 76%)
Missing data=1
106; 74% (66% to 81%)
Missing data=0
0.50
Previous heart failure256; 57% (52% to 61%)
Missing data=2
193; 62% (57% to 67%)
Missing data=2
63; 44% (36% to 52%)
Missing data=0
0.0003
IHD239; 53% (48% to 57%)
Missing data=1
161; 52% (46% to 57%)
Missing data=1
78; 55% (46% to 62%)
Missing data=0
0.58
Dyslipidaemia212; 47% (42% to 52%)
Missing data=4
147; 48% (42% to 53%)
Missing data=4
65; 45% (38% to 54%)
Missing data=0
0.65
Diabetes194; 43% (39% to 48%)
Missing data=4
131; 43% (37% to 48%)
Missing data=4
63; 44% (36% to 52%)
Missing data=0
0.76
Prior AF180; 40% (35% to 44%)
Missing data=3
137; 44% (39% to 50%)
Missing data=3
43; 30% (23% to 38%)
Missing data=0
0.004
Renal impairment127; 28% (24% to 33%)
Missing data=5
86; 28% (23% to 33%)
Missing data=5
41; 29% (22% to 37%)
Missing data=0
0.88
COPD83; 18% (15% to 22%)
Missing data=5
77; 25% (21% to 30%)
Missing data=5
6; 4% (2% to 9%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Valvular disease69; 15% (12% to 18%)
Missing data=5
61; 20% (16% to 25%)
Missing data=5
6; 4% (2% to 9%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Anaemia57; 13% (10% to 16%)
Missing data=5
34; 11% (8% to 15%)
Missing data=5
23; 16% (11% to 23%)
Missing data=0
0.13
Smoker35; 8% (6% to 11%)
Missing data=5
27; 9% (6% to 12%)
Missing data=5
8; 6% (3% to 11%)
Missing data=0
0.23
Active malignancy37; 8% (6% to 11%)
Missing data=4
33; 11% (8% to 15%)
Missing data=4
4; 3% (1% to 7%)
Missing data=0
0.004
Prior PE17; 4% (2% to 6%)
Missing data=5
15; 5% (3% to 8%)
Missing data=5
2; 1% (0.4% to 5%)
Missing data=0
0.07
Usual medicationsN, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)
Diuretic280; 62% (57% to 66%)
Missing data=2
203; 65% (60% to 71%)
Missing data=2
77; 54% (46% to 62%)
Missing data=0
0.02
Statin237; 52% (48% to 57%)
Missing data=1
161; 52% (46% to 57%)
Missing data=1
76; 53% (45% to 61%)
Missing data=0
0.78
Antiplatelet agent226; 50% (45% to 54%)
Missing data=2
148; 48% (42% to 53%)
Missing data=2
78; 55% (46% to 62%)
Missing data=0
0.18
β-blocker224; 49% (45% to 54%)
Missing data=2
160; 52% (46% to 57%)
Missing data=2
64; 45% (37% to 53%)
Missing data=0
0.18
ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker217; 48% (43% to 53%)
Missing data=3
161; 52% (47% to 58%)
Missing data=3
56; 39% (32% to 47%)
Missing data=0
0.01
Long-acting oral anticoagulant127; 28% (24% to 32%)
Missing data=3
105; 34% (29% to 39%)
Missing data=3
22; 15% (10% to 22%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Calcium channel blocker112; 25% (21% to 29%)
Missing data=3
74; 24% (20 to 29%)
Missing data=3
38; 27% (20 to 34%)
Missing data=0
0.54
Inhaled β-sympathomimetic103; 23% (19% to 27%)
Missing data=4
85; 28% (23% to 33%
Missing data=4
18; 13% (8% to 19%)
Missing data=0
0.0004
Nitrate85; 19% (16% to 23%)
Missing data=4
51; 17% (13% to 21%)
Missing data=4
34; 24% (18% to 31%)
Missing data=0
0.07
Insulin66; 15% (12% to 18%)
Missing data=4
46; 15% (11% to 19%)
Missing data=4
20; 14% (9% to 21%)
Missing data=0
0.79
Aldosterone antagonist54; 12% (9% to 15%)
Missing data=3
39; 13% (9% to 17%)
Missing data=3
15; 10% (6% to 17%)
Missing data=0
0.51
Oral corticosteroid22; 5% (3% to 7%)
Missing data=5
17; 6% (3% to 9%)
Missing data=5
5; 4% (2% to 8%)
Missing data=0
0.35
Home oxygen16: 4% (2% to 6%)
Missing data=4
14; 5% (3% to 7%)
Missing data=4
2; 1% (0.5% to 5%)
Missing data=0
0.09
  • Data adjusted for missing data.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; NZ, New Zealand; PE, pulmonary embolism; SE Asia, South East Asia, combined data from Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore.