Table 3

Associations between parental violence and witnessing violence between parents, male students

CharacteristicMale (n=1334)
Witnessed shouting versus
witnessed no parental violence
Male (n=1195)
Witnessed physical IPV vs witnessed no parental violence
Male (n=1317)
Witnessed shouting and physical IPV vs witnessed no parental violence
aOR95% CIp ValueaOR95% CIp ValueaOR95% CIp Value
Parental violence
 Emotional only4.282.20 to 8.31<0.0010.740.08 to 6.720.7816.773.96 to 11.56<0.001
 Physical only1.650.94 to 2.890.0771.050.36 to 3.000.9330.770.39 to 1.510.436
 Emotional and physical6.533.29 to 12.96<0.0016.222.63 to 14.72<0.001
Non-parental violence
 Emotional2.671.86 to 3.86<0.0011.480.83 to 2.620.1752.871.72 to 4.78<0.001
 Physical*1.691.09 to 2.640.0212.481.67 to 3.68<0.0012.341.52 to 3.56<0.001
 Sexual1.840.94 to 3.610.0742.240.57 to 8.830.2433.511.52 to 8.100.004
  • aOR is adjusted OR, adjusted for age (years), eaten at least three meals in the past day versus less, share sleeping area with two or more children, versus less, share sleeping area with one or more adults versus less, have a disability versus not, worked 1–2 hours or 2 or more hours per day versus <1 hour.

  • *Any physical violence from non-parents but severe physical violence from school staff.

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.