Table 6.

Characteristics of included students

CharacteristicN* Per centSEN*Per centSEp Value
 10 years or less503.00.7935.31.0
 11–14 years127578.71.6150384.71.2
 15 or more years32918.31.717210.01.3
Number of meals eaten yesterday0.032
 1 meal22512.71.228015.11.2
 2 meals71641.72.064436.71.6
 3+ meals71545.62.784648.01.8
Transport to school0.019
 Walking alone44328.73.144726.93.1
 Walking with others106765.33.3124769.83.7
Ever worked for money96155.93.127214.71.2<0.001
Hours worked on average school day0.149
 More than 232718.22.326414.31.2
Violence from parents or caregivers
 No violence142887.01.9120569.04.1<0.001
 Sexual violence, lifetime0000
 Emotional violence only, lifetime482.70.6784.41.3
 Physical violence only, lifetime1438.31.339521.93.3
 Emotional and physical violence, lifetime372.00.6924.70.9
Witnessing IPV
 No witnessing114373.21.7119972.91.60.836
 Witnessed shouting only, ever19112.41.722513.31.0
 Witnessed physical IPV only, ever643.80.6694.00.6
 Witnessed shouting and physical IPV, ever17410.71.01659.81.0
Violence from non-caregivers
 Emotional violence, lifetime93858.72.799355.82.90.485
 Physical violence,† lifetime62539.82.867539.22.20.768
 Sexual violence, lifetime633.90.623913.31.3<0.001
Witnessing IPV‡ and violence from any perpetrator§
 Not witnessed parental IPV or experienced violence925.60.9724.61.60.446
 Witnessed IPV but not experienced any violence90.60.2241.30.5
 Not witnessed IPV but experienced violence105167.61.8112768.31.6
 Witnessed IPV and experience violence42026.31.843525.81.7
  • *Ns are number of participants in each category and are not adjusted for survey design; per cent and SE are weighted and adjusted for clustering.

  • †Includes physical violence from any perpetrator but only severe physical violence from school staff.

  • ‡Witnessing parental IPV includes shouting or physical IPV.

  • §Violence from caregiver or non-caregiver (sexual or emotional violence from any perpetrator and any physical violence from non-parents but severe physical violence from school staff).

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.