Table 2

Examination findings, testing and pathology findings, overall and by region

OverallBy regionp Value
Overall (N=455)Australia and NZ (N=312)SE Asia (N=143)
Examination findings in ED
 Pulse (bpm)86 (72–102)
Missing data=6
85 (71–102)
Missing data=4
90 (73–103)
Missing data=2
0.36
 SBP (mm  Hg, IQR)143 (125–166)
Missing data=8
141 (122–160)
Missing data=7
144 (128–172)
Missing data=1
0.08
 Respiratory rate (per min, IQR)24 (20–28)
Missing data=4
24 (20–30)
Missing data=4
21 (19–26)0.0007
 Oxygen saturation on air (%, where known, IQR)95% (92–98%)
Missing data=113
94% (90–96%)
Missing data=76
97% (95–99%)
Missing data=37
<0.0001
 Oxygen saturation on oxygen (%, where known excludes patients with SpO2 on air, IQR)97% (95–99%)
Missing data=5
97% (94–99%)
Missing data=4
98% (97–100%)
Missing data=1
<0.0001
 Peripheral oedema (N, %, 95% CI)301; 77% (72% to 81%)
Missing data=63
204; 76% (71% to 81%)
Missing data=45
97; 78% (70% to 84%)
Missing data=18
0.68
 SBP>140 mm  Hg (N, %, 95% CI)235; 53% (48% to 57%)
Missing data=8
156; 52% (46% to 57%)
Missing data=7
79; 56% (47% to 64%)
Missing data=1
0.41
 SBP>160 mm  Hg (N, %, 95% CI)126; 28% (24% to 33%)
Missing data=8
76; 25% (20% to 30%)
Missing data=7
50, 35% (28% to 43%)
Missing data=1
0.03
 SpO2<90%, (on air or oxygen) (N, %, 95% CI)74; 16% (13% to 20%)
Missing data=5
56; 18% (14% to 23%)
Missing data=4
8; 6% (3% to 11%)
Missing data=1
0.007
 Respiratory rate >30/min, (N, %, 95% CI)76; 17% (14% to 21%
Missing data=4
63; 20% (16% to 25%)
Missing data=4
16; 12% (7% to 17%)
Missing data=0
0.02
Chest findings in EDN, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)
Basal crepitations233; 53% (49% to 58%)
Missing data=19
146; 49% (44% to 55%)
Missing data=15
87; 63% (54% to 70%)
Missing data=4
0.01
Widespread crepitations86; 20% (16% to 24%)
Missing data=19
67; 23% (18% to 28%)
Missing data=15
19; 14% (8% to 20%)
Missing data=4
0.05
Testing ordered in EDN, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)
Chest radiograph429; 95% (92% to 96%)
Missing data=0
292; 94% (90% to 96%)
Missing data=0
137; 96% (91% to 98%)
Missing data=0
0.48
Lung ultrasound in ED3; 0.7% (0.2% to 2%)
Missing data=0
1; 0.3% (0.06% to 2%)
Missing data=0
1% (0.4% to 5%)
Missing data=0
0.19
Echocardiography in ED10; 2% (1% to 4%)
Missing data=2
7; 2% (1% to 5%)
Missing data=2
3; 2% (0.7% to 6%)
Missing data=0
0.91
Electrolytes393; 86% (83% to 89%)
Missing data=0
299; 98% (96% to 98%)
Missing data=0
94; 66% (58% to 73%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Full blood examination408; 90% (87% to 92%)
Missing data=0
305; 98% (95% to 99%)
Missing data=0
103; 72% (64% to 79%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
BNP (N, %, 95% CI)25; 5% (4% to 8%)
Missing data=0
25; 8% (5% to 12%)
Missing data=0
0; 0% (0% to 2.6%)
Missing data=0
0.001
NT-proBNP62; 14% (11% to 17%)
Missing data=0
33; 11 (8% to 14%)
Missing data=0
29; 20% (15% to 28%)
Missing data=0
0.008
Natriuretic peptide (either BNP or NT-proBNP)87; 19% (16% to 23%)
Missing data=0
58; 19% (15% to 23%)
Missing data=0
29; 20% (15% to 28%)
Missing data=0
0.76
Troponin287; 63% (59% to 67%)
Missing data=0
204; 65% (60% to 70%)
Missing data=0
83; 58% (50% to 66%)
Missing data=0
0.16
C reactive protein145; 32% (28% to 36%)
Missing data=0
140; 45% (40% to 50%)
Missing data=0
5; 4% (2% to 8%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Blood gas analysis167; 37% (32% to 41%)
Missing data=0
145; 46% (41% to 52%)
Missing data=0
22; 15% (10% to 22%)
Missing data=0
<0.001
Glucose256; 56% (52% to 61%)
Missing data=0
191; 61% (56% to 66%)
Missing data=0
65: 45% (38% to 54%)
Missing data=0
0.002
D-dimer11; 2% (1% to 4%)
Missing data=0
11; 4% (2% to 6%)
Missing data=0
0; 0% (0% to 3%)
Missing data=0
0.04
Lactate125; 27% (24% to 32%)
Missing data=0
108; 35% (30% to 40%)
Missing data=0
17; 12% (8% to 18%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Albumin256; 56% (52% to 61%)
Missing data=0
221; 71% (66% to 76%)
Missing data=0
35; 24% (18% to 32%)
Missing data=0
<0.0001
Pathology findingsN, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)N, % (95% CI)
Serum sodium concentration <130 mmol/L18; 4% (3% to 6%)
Missing data=0
15; 5% (3% to 8%)
Missing data=0
3; 2% (0.7% to 6%)
Missing data=0
0.20
Haemoglobin <10 mmol/L67; 15% (12% to 18%)
Missing data=0
48; 15% (12% to 20%)
Missing data=0
19; 13% (9% to 20%)
Missing data=0
0.57
Serum creatinine >80 µmol/L313; 69% (65% to 73%)
Missing data=0
229; 73% (68% to 78%)
Missing data=0
84; 59% (51% to 66%)
Missing data=0
0.002
Serum creatinine >150 µmol/L114; 25% (21% to 29%)
Missing data=0
80; 26% (21% to 31%)
Missing data=0
34; 24% (18% to 31%)
Missing data=0
0.73
Troponin >99th centile for test173; 38% (34% to 43%)
Missing data=0
123; 39% (34% to 45%)
Missing data=0
50; 35% (28% to 43%)
Missing data=0
0.41
  • Data adjusted for missing data.

  • BNP, β natriuretic peptide; bpm, beats per minute; ED, emergency department; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro β natriuretic peptide; NZ, New Zealand; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SE Asia, South East Asia, combined data from Malaysia, Hong Kong and Singapore; SpO2, oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry.