TableĀ 1

Inclusion criteria

PatientsPatient presenting for surgery with one or more of the following: two or more comorbidities, terminal illness, frailty identified by treating clinician
Patient family membersNominated by patient as next-of-kin or surrogate for patient care decision-making in advance care directive or similar
Staff membersA minimum of 50% of time working as surgical case manager (including nursing staff), surgeon, anaesthetist, intensivist, etc, for high-risk surgical patients