Table 6

GRADE evidence profile for RCTs: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and electronic non-nicotine delivery systems (ENNDS) for reducing cigarette smoking.

Quality assessmentSummary of findingsCertainty in estimates
No of participants
Range follow-up time
Study event ratesAnticipated absolute effects
over 6-12 months
Risk of biasInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionPublication biasENNDS*ENDSRelative risk
(95% CI)
Quality of evidence
6-12 mo
No serious limitationsNo serious limitationsNo serious limitationsSerious imprecision1Undetected7/ 11243/ 3692.03
213 per 1000219 more per 1000
(13 fewer to 720 more)
Renal insufficiency
6-12 mo
Serious limitations1Serious limitationsNo serious limitationsSerious imprecision2Undetected45/ 112184/ 3690.97
213 per 10007 fewer per 1000
(92 fewer to 140 more)
  • *The estimated risk control was taken from the median estimated control risks of the cohort studies.

  • 195% CI for absolute effects include clinically important benefit and no benefit.