Table 1

Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influencing the usage of antenatal care services according to regions in Indonesia, IDHS-2012

Sumatra regionJava regionLesser Sunda Islands regionKalimantan regionSulawesi regionMaluku islands regionWestern New Guinea region
VariableANC (2744)ANC (2320)ANC (847)ANC (999)ANC (1525)ANC (467)ANC (559)
Age (years)
 15–1989 (75.4)92 (90.2)35 (85.4)77 (82.8)108 (76.6)20 (66.7)19 (51.4)
 20–24550 (71.8)496 (85.2)187 (70.6)252 (72.6)362 (59.9)111 (54.4)90 (36.3)
 25–29859 (49.5)659 (58.1)254 (49.7)271 (47.6)386 (43.7)113 (36.8)121 (32.2)
 30+1246 (29.6)1043 (34.8)371 (29.1)399 (27.9)669 (23.4)223 (21.6)143 (15.8)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
Place of residence
 Urban1189 (44)1529 (48)354 (48.6)434 (44.3)605 (39.3)179 (33.9)163 (34.2)
 Rural1555 (37.7)791 (46.5)493 (36.1)565 (38.7)920 (31.3)288 (27.6)210 (19.2)
 p Value0.0010.320.0010.0050.0010.0090.001
Mother's education
 No education27 (16.4)13 (21)30 (32.6)13 (13.1)29 (12.3)5 (12.5)41 (10.3)
 Primary691 (31.3)615 (36.3)271 (32)322 (34.1)466 (25.6)115 (22.4)85 (18.1)
 Secondary1612 (43.9)1330 (54.1)433 (46)544 (46.2)790 (40.3)269 (31.5)181 (31.7)
 Higher414 (52.5)332 (55.2)113 (53.6)120 (54.8)240 (51.6)78 (47)66 (50.8)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
Father's education
 No education16 (14.2)15 (27.3)19 (38.8)14 (18.7)32 (17.4)6 (16.7)17 (8.1)
 Primary753 (3.3)606 (38.5)280 (35.3)296 (32.8)514 (28.1)96 (21.6)70 (17.4)
 Secondary1669 (44.2)1327 (52.1)422 (43.1)550 (45.7)765 (38.3)284 (31.6)217 (28.8)
 Higher303 (46.5)341 (53.8)124 (45.8)139 (53.9)211 (45.3)78 (41.5)65 (36.3)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0020.0010.0010.0010.001
Mother's occupation
 Not working outside home1342 (43.8)1210 (46.8)319 (42)526 (44.3)811 (34.8)263 (31.9)201 (30.1)
 Skilled814 (42.3)683 (49)241 (45.8)277 (43.9)453 (39.6)130 (33.6)106 (36.3)
 Agriculture317 (31.0)82 (38)142 (33.3)119 (28.6)140 (22.7)45 (18.3)48 (11.4)
 Unskilled/others268 (32.8)313 (50.4)145 (38)75 (36.9)115 (30.5)29 (25)16 (8.7)
 p Value0.0010.0080.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
Father's occupation
 Not working34 (42)29 (42)17 (54.8)7 (28)29 (38.2)21 (38.9)22 (24.7)
 Skilled work844 (45.8)1042 (49.4)266 (45.1)354 (46.6)491 (40.1)155 (35.4)147 (31.5)
 Agriculture764 (34.9)218 (41.1)228 (32.4)235 (32.2)443 (27)138 (22.2)97 (14.8)
 Unskilled/others1049 (40.3)999 (47.4)336 (43.8)403 (43.6)554 (36.3)152 (33.2)106 (29.9)
 p Value0.0010.0060.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
Wealth quintile
 Poorest587 (31.4)186 (35.8)38 (33.6)328 (35.3)597 (27.1)191 (24.2)152 (16.2)
 Poorer639 (41.3)352 (45.7)187 (42.9)268 (41.7)328 (38.7)103 (29.9)65 (32.7)
 Middle604 (45.5)447 (47.2)131 (46.0)176 (45.8)253 (38.2)86 (38.6)68 (38)
 Richer537 (44.9)611 (50.3)113 (49.1)121 (47.5)214 (45.7)61 (40.9)50 (43.1)
 Richest377 (43.6)694 (50.8)108 (48)106 (46.5)133 (44.5)26 (38.8)28 (37.8)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001
Frequency of listening to the radio/reading newspapers/magazines
 Not at all222 (30.2)140 (34.7)242 (34.5)76 (33)165 (22.3)115 (23.3)124 (15.2)
 Less than once a week48 (28.7)58 (52.3)30 (40)16 (47.1)42 (32.3)8 (44.4)9 (45)
 At least once a week2474 (41.7)2092 (48.6)575 (43.7)907 (41.7)1318 (36.5)344 (32.4)493 (32.7)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.030.0010.0010.001
Birth order
 First982 (33.1)964 (40.6)318 (35.4)407 (36.9)507 (29.5)145 (26)118 (21.7)
 Second863 (44.8)781 (56.3)236 (41.8)293 (44.2)438 (37.5)108 (27.7)90 (23.5)
 Third495 (49)337 (56.7)15 (47.8)159 (46.2)266 (38.4)95 (36.3)70 (27.9)
 Fourth233 (49.3)107 (46.3)71 (46.1)75 (44.6)156 (39.2)47 (31.3)39 (24.9)
 Fifth and above171 (37.3)101 (43.2)72 (44.4)65 (40.1)158 (31.9)72 (33.8)56 (23.9)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.004 0.020.46
Child status
 Dead38 (10.2)50 (21.9)25 (16.2)22 (14.8)36 (10.1)12 (9.4)206 (11.7)
 Alive2706 (41.9)2240 (48.8)822 (42.4)977 (42.6)1489 (36.1)455 (31.5)353 (25.3)
 p Value0.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.0010.001