Table 2

Univariate analyses of socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the usage of antenatal care services according to regions in Indonesia, IDHS-2012

Sumatra regionJava regionLesser Sunda Islands regionKalimantan regionSulawesi regionMaluku islands regionWestern New Guinea region
VariableOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CIOR and 95% CI
Age (years)
 15–191111111
 20–240.83 (0.53 to 1.3)0.63 (0.32 to 1.3)0.41 (0.17 to 1.02)0.55 (0.31 to 0.99)0.46 (0.30 to 0.70)0.60 (0.27 to 1.34)0.54 (0.27 to 1.08)
 25–290.32 (0.21 to 0.50)0.15 (0.08 to 0.3)0.17 (0.07 to 0.41)0.19 (0.11 to 0.33)0.24 (0.16 to 0.36)0.30 (0.13−0.64)0.45 (0.23 to 0.89)
 30+0.14 (0.09 to 0.21)0.06 (0.03 to 0.11)0.07 (0.03 to 0.17)0.08 (0.05 to 0.14)0.09 (0.86 to 0.14)0.14 (0.06 to 0.30)0.18 (0.09 to 0.35)
Place of residence
 Urban1111111
 Rural0.77 (0.7 to 0.8)0.94 (0.84 to 1.06)0.60 (0.5 to 0.7)0.8 (0.67 to 0.93)0.7 (0.62 to 0.8)0.74 (0.6 to 0.93)0.46 (0.36 to 0.59)
Mother's education
 No education1111111
 Primary2.3 (1.5 to 3.5)2.0 (1.2 to 3.9)0.97 (0.6 to 1.5)3.4 (1.9 to 6.2)2.5 (1.6 to 3.7)2.0 (0.8 to 5.3)1.9 (1.3 to 2.9)
 Secondary4.0 (2.6 to 6.1)4.4 (2.4 to 8.2)1.8 (1.1 to 2.8)5.7 (3.1 to 10.3)4.8 (3.2 to 7.2))3.2 (1.2 to 8.3)4.0 (2.8 to 5.8)
 Higher5.6 (3.7 to 8.7)4.7 (2.5 to 8.8)2.4 (1.4 to 3.9)8.0 (4.2 to 15.2)7.6 (5.0 to 11.7)6.2 (2.3 to 16.6)8.9 (5.6 to 14.4)
Father's education
 No education1111111
 Primary3.0 (1.7 to 5.1)1.7 (0.9 to 3.0)0.9 (0.5 to 1.62)2.1 (1.2 to 3.9)1.9 (1.2 to 2.8)1.4 (0.6 to 3.4)2.4 (1.4 to 4.2)
 Secondary4.8 (2.8 to 8.2)2.9 (1.6 to 5.3)1.2 (0.7 to 2.2)3.7 (2.0 to 6.6)2.9 (2.0 to 4.4)2.3 (1.0 to 5.6)4.6 (2.7 to 7.7)
 Higher5.3 (3.8 to 9.2)3.1 (1.7 to 5.7)1.3 (0.7 to 2.5)5.1 (2.7 to 9.6)3.9 (2.6 to 6.0)3.5 (1.4 to 8.9)6.4 (3.6 to 11.5)
Mother's occupation
 Not working outside home1111111
 Skilled0.9 (0.8 to 1.1)1.1 (0.9 to 1.2)1.2 (0.9 to 1.5)1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)1.2 (1.1 to 1.4)1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)1.3 (1.0 to 1.8)
 Agriculture0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)0.7 (0.5 to 0.9)0.7 (0.5 to 0.8)0.5 (0.4 to 0.6)0.5 (0.4 to 0.7)0.5 (0.3 to 0.7)0.3 (0.2 to 0.4)
 Unskilled/others0.6 (0.53 to 0.7)1.2 (0.9 to 1.4)0.8 (0.7 to 1.1)0.7 (0.5 to 1.0)0.8 (0.6 to 1.04)0.7 (0.45 to 1.1)0.2 (0.1 to 0.4)
Father's occupation
 Not working1111111
 Skilled work1.2 (0.7 to 1.8)1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.7 (0.3 to 1.4)2.2 (0.9 to 5.4)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.9 (0.5 to 1.5)1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)
 Agriculture0.7 (0.5 to 1.2)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.4 (0.2 to 0.8)1.2 (0.5 to 3.0)0.6 (0.4 to 1.0)0.4 (0.3 to 08)0.5 (0.3 to 0.9)
 Unskilled others0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)1.3 (0.8 to 2.0)0.6 (0.3 to 1.3)1.9 (0.8 to 4.8)0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)0.8 (0.4 to 1.4)1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest1111111
 Poorer1.5 (1.3 to 1.8)1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.5 (1.0 to 1.8)2.5 (1.8 to 3.5)
 Middle1.8 (1.5 to 2.0)1.6 (1.3 to 2.0)1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)1.6 (1.2 to 2.0)1.6 (1.3 to 2.0)2.0 (1.4 to 2.7)3.2 (2.2 to 4.5)
 Richer1.8 (1.5 to 2.1)1.8 (1.5 to 2.2)1.9 (1.4 to 2.6)1.7 ((1.3 to 2.2)2.3 (1.9 to 2.8)2.2 (1.5 to 3.1)3.9 (2.6 to 5.9)
 Richest1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.9 (1.5 to 2.3)1.8 (1.4 to 2.5)1.6 (1.2 to 2.0)2.2 (1.7 to 2.8)2.0 (1.2 to 3.3)3.0 (1.9 to 5.2)
Frequency of listening to the radio/reading newspapers/magazines
 Not at all1111111
 Less than once a week0.9 (0.6 to 1.4)2.0 (1.3 to 3.2)1.3 (0.8 to 2.1)1.8 (0.9 to 3.7)1.7 (1.1 to 2.5)2.6 (1.0 to 6.8)4.6 (1.9 to 11.2)
 At least once a week1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.8 (1.4 to 2.2)1.5 (1.2 to 1.8)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)2.0 (1.7 to 2.4)1.6 (1.2 to 2.0)2.7 (2.0 to 3.5)
Birth order
 First1111111
 Second1.6 (1.5 to 1.8)1.9 (1.6 to 2.0)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)1.4 (1.1 to 1.6)1.4 (1.2 to 1.7)1.0 (0.8 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
 Third1.9 (1.7 to 2.2)1.9 (1.6 to 2.3)1.7 (1.3 to 2.2)1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)1.5 (1.2 to 1.8)1.6 (1.2 to 2.2)1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)
 Fourth2.0 (1.6 to 2.4)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)1.6 (1.1 to 2.2)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)1.6 (1.2 to 1.9)1.3 (0.9 to 1.9)1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)
 Fifth and above1.2 (1.0 to 1.5)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)1.5 (1.0 to 2.0)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)1.5 (1.0 to 2.0)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)
Child status
 Dead1111111
 Alive6.3 (4.4 to 8.8)3.4 (2.5 to 4.7)3.8 (2.5 to 5.9)43 (2.7 to 6.8)5 (3.5 to 7.1)4.4 (2.4 to 8.1)2.6 (1.6 to 4.1)