Table 1

Characteristics of all participant variables

MenWomenp Value
N16741448
Age, years51.2 (10.2)49.8 (9.7)<0.001
Body Mass Index, kg/m223.7 (3.0)22.1 (2.9)<0.001
Visceral fat area, cm277.3 (32.2)48.7 (24.9)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg119.0 (15.2)113.3 (16.7)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg77.0 (12.0)69.4 (12.0)<0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L1.51 (0.37)1.86 (0.40)<0.001
Triglyceride, mmol/L1.15 (0.81–1.69)0.78 (0.59–1.06)<0.001
Fasting blood glucose, mmol/L5.26 (0.97)4.88 (0.65)<0.001
Smoking status (%) (current, quit, never)25.7, 36.0, 38.48.3, 12.9, 78.8<0.001
Drinking status (%) (current, quit, never)69.0, 1.4, 29.641.9, 1.0, 57.1<0.001
Exercise (%) (0, 1–59, ≥60 min/week)42.0, 28.8, 29.254.8, 21.5, 23.7<0.001
Eating until full (%)18.218.00.092
Eating quickly (%)56.743.6<0.001
  • Continuous variables with normal distributions were presented as means (SDs).

  • Continuous variables with non-normal distributions were presented as 50th centile (25–75th centile).

  • HDL, high-density lipoprotein.