Table 1

Study characteristics

Non-exposed
n=14 847
No. (%)
SSRI
n=2327
SNRI
n=738
TCA
n=382
Other antidepressants
n=193
p Value
Pregnancy-related
 Gestational age (weeks), mean (±SD)38.7±1.938.5±1.938.4±2.038.5±2.438.5±2.30.10
 Birth weight (g), mean (±SD)3309.7±562.73252.1±567.43226.2±566.03218.7±583.33247.5±620.7<0.001
 Newborn gender (male)7595 (51.2)1190 (51.1)377 (51.2)197 (51.2)109 (56.5)0.70
Measure on the first day of gestation
 Maternal age, years, mean (±SD)27.6±5.728.4±5.727.9±5.229.2±6.229.0±6.2<0.001
 Urban dweller, n (%)12 404 (83.6)1897 (81.5)609 (82.5)312 (81.7)160 (82.9)0.14
 Welfare recipient, n (%)5852 (39.4)1058 (45.6)298 (40.4)167 (43.7)100 (51.8)<0.001
 Living alone, n (%)3056 (20.6)568 (24.4)192 (26.0)95 (24.9)55 (28.5)<0.001
Maternal comorbidities in the year before or during pregnancy
 Diabetes, n (%)296 (2.0)54 (2.3)13 (1.8)17 (4.5)5 (2.6)0.015
 Hypertension, n (%)682 (4.6)122 (5.2)46 (6.2)44 (11.5)16 (8.3)<0.001
 Asthma, n (%)2655 (17.9)530 (22.8)165 (22.4)92 (24.1)56 (29.0)<0.001
Health services usage in the year before or during the first trimester
 Visits to a physician, mean (±SD)9.2±7.19.7±8.18.5±6.711.7±10.210.5±7.7<0.001
 Visits to a general practitioner, mean (±SD)6.6±5.27.1±5.96.7±5.07.9±7.27.6±5.8<0.001
 Visits to specialists other than psychiatrists or obstetricians, mean (±SD)1.7±3.01.9±4.21.3±3.22.7±3.62.1±3.2<0.001
 At least one
  Psychiatrist visit137 (0.9)14 (0.6)4 (0.5)11 (2.9)2 (1.0)<0.001
  Obstetrician visit4790 (32.3)566 (24.3)151 (20.5)121 (31.7)51 (26.4)<0.001
  ED visit2869 (19.3)482 (20.7)240 (35.5)69 (18.1)44 (22.8)<0.001
  Hospitalisation1091 (7.4)193 (8.3)82 (11.1)30 (7.9)21 (10.9)0.001
  Benzodiazepine prescription filled3218 (21.7)1012 (43.5)274 (37.1)91 (23.8)73 (37.8)<0.001
 No. of medications used other than antidepressants/benzodiazepines
  02620 (17.7)216 (9.3)64 (8.7)26 (6.8)7 (3.6)
  1–24334 (29.2)644 (27.7)206 (27.9)84 (22.0)54 (28.0)
  3–54674 (31.5)825 (35.5)253 (34.3)103 (27.0)65 (33.7)
  ≥63219 (21.7)642 (27.6)215 (29.1)169 (44.2)67 (34.7)<0.001
 No. of different prescribers
  0–12374 (16.0)155 (6.7)46 (6.2)23 (6.0)4 (2.1)
  2–35642 (38.0)824 (35.4)274 (37.1)121 (31.7)67 (34.7)
  >36831 (46.0)1348 (57.9)418 (56.6)238 (62.3)122 (63.2)<0.001
  • ED, emergency department visit; SNRI, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; TCA, tricyclic antidepressants.