Table 3

Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women

 Exposed during the first trimester of pregnancy
n=3640
Unexposed
n=14 847
SSRI
n=2327
SNRI
n=738
TCA
n=382
Other antidepressants
n=193
Crude prevalence OR (95% CI)Adjusted* prevalence OR (95% CI)
Major congenital malformations overall1650 (11.1)279 (12.0)91 (12.3)51 (13.4)21 (10.9)Non-exposedRef.Ref.
SSRI1.09 (0.95 to 1.25)1.07 (0.93 to 1.22)
SNRI1.12 (0.89 to 1.41)1.10 (0.87 to 1.38)
TCA1.23 (0.91 to 1.67)1.16 (0.86 to 1.56)
Other antidepressants0.96 (0.61 to 1.52)0.93 (0.59 to 1.47)
  • *Adjusted for maternal age, welfare status, diabetes, hypertension, asthma and other medication uses including benzodiazepines as well as healthcare usage in the year prior and during the first trimester.

  • SNRI, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; TCA, tricyclic antidepressants.