Table 2

Components of an enhanced recovery program

Enhanced recoveryComponents included
For all three groups*
1Preoperative education and stoma trainingO
2Carbohydrate loading preoperatively and avoidance of prolonged starvingO
3Use of preoperative probiotics
4No mechanical bowel preparationO
5No premedication†
6Goal-directed perioperative fluid administrationO
7High perioperative O2 concentrationsO
8Maintenance of normothermiaO
9Epidural analgesia
10Laparoscopic surgery or transverse incisionsO
11Avoidance of nasogastric tubesO
12Avoidance of drainsO
13Avoidance of opioid analgesiaO
14Use of postoperative laxativesO
15Early removal of bladder catheterO
16Enforced early mobilisationO
17Enforced early postoperative oral feedingO
For Acupuncture and/or Wristband group
18PC6 wristband for prevention of PONV (for both groups)O
19Ear acupuncture for preoperative anxiolysis (for Acupuncture group)O
20Body acupuncture for prevention of PONV/recovery after surgery (for both groups)O
  • *Seventeen components reflect the key elements of enhanced recovery after surgery in colonic surgery, suggested by Wind et al.8

  • †Premedication is provided according to the local anaesthetic protocol (intramuscular injection of glycopyrrolate and midazolam).

  • PONV, postoperative nausea and vomiting.