Table 3

Sleepiness at the wheel

Variables1996
N=2197
2011
N=3558
N (%)N (%)Standardisation*p Value
Sleepiness-related driving accident%<0.0001
 Never1502 (75.0)2150 (60.4)62.4
 Sleepiness not interfering with driving320 (16.0)764 (21.5)20.5
 Sleepiness interfering with driving65 (3.2)89 (2.5)2.5
 Sleepiness requiring the driver to stop112 (5.6)499 (14.0)13.1
 Sleepiness leading to a near-miss accident4 (0.2)56 (1.6)1.4
Visual analogue scales at the time of the interview (0=very sleepy à 10=not at all sleepy)NS
 Mean±SD7.8 (±1.7)7.7 (±1.8)7.7
EPWORTH sleepiness score %<0.01
 <111811 (90.2)3202 (90.0)89.4
 11–14181 (9.0)293 (8.2)8.5
 ≥1515 (0.8)63 (1.8)2.1
  • *Standardisation: The standardisation column represents the rate and average that will be found if the 2011 drivers had the same distribution than the 1996 population according to age, sex and driving distance.

  • NS, not significant.