Table 3

Details and comparison between three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of Advance Care Planning (ACP) in cancer care

Study nameStudy designSample sizePopulationInterventionPrimary outcomeShared patient outcomesAdditional features of each study
ACTION Study27Cluster RCT in 6 European countries (BE, DK, IT, NL, SI, UK)1360Patients with advanced lung or colorectal cancer with an average life expectancy of 12 monthsRespecting Choices modelQuality of life and symptomsGoal concordant care
Quality of life
Quality of death/quality of end-of-life (EOL) care
Satisfaction with the intervention
Timing, place and prevalence of documentation about EOL care
Place of death
Resource use/cost analysis
Bereavement outcomes in relatives
Qualitative study of patients, relative's and professional caregivers’ experiences of involvement in ACP
Bernacki et al26Cluster RCT, USA426Patients with advanced incurable cancer and a life expectancy of <12 monthsA multicomponent, structured communication interventionReceipt of goal-concordant care, and peacefulness at the EOLClinician outcome data—attitudes, confidence, acceptability, prognostic evaluation
Australian ACP studyOne-to-one randomisation RCT, Australia210Patients with advanced cancer, and a life expectancy of 3–12 monthsAdapted Respecting Patient Choices model + prognostic informationFamily/friend-reported: (1) discussion with the patient about their EOL wishes and (2) perception that the patient's EOL wishes were metEstimating and discussing survival scenarios