Table 4

Unadjusted and adjusted OR and 95% CI of knee pain by socioeconomic factors

Unadjusted ORAdjusted OR
Associated factorModel 1Model 2Model 3
Gender
 Male (Ref)
 Female1.03 (0.89 to 1.18)1.23 (1.04 to 1.45)0.69 (0.44 to 1.11)
Ethnicity
 Malay (Ref)
 Chinese0.55 (0.47 to 0.64)0.51 (0.43 to 0.61)0.31 (0.14 to 0.68)
 Indian1.45 (1.17 to 1.81)1.42 (1.12 to 1.78)1.46 (0.55 to 3.91)
Age (years)
 ≤30 (Ref)
 31–401.41 (1.14 to 1.75)1.19 (0.94 to 1.51)1.10 (0.69 to 1.75)
 >401.76 (1.43 to 2.18)1.60 (1.26 to 2.02)1.26 (0.81 to 1.96)
Residence
 Urban (Ref)
 Rural0.79 (0.69 to 0.91)0.99 (0.85 to 1.16)0.92 (0.76 to 1.12)
Education
 Tertiary (Ref)
 Secondary1.26 (1.02 to 1.55)1.37 (1.07 to 1.75)1.47 (1.03 to 2.11)
 Primary or non-formal1.23 (1.05 to 1.43)1.23 (1.04 to 1.45)1.33 (1.07 to 1.66)
Employment status
 No (Ref)
 Yes1.06 (0.91 to 1.23)0.99 (0.83 to 1.18)0.87 (0.68 to 1.11)
Ethnicity×gender
 Chinese×female1.22 (0.83 to 1.79)
 Indian×female2.09 (1.21 to 3.60)
Gender×age group
 Female×age group (31–40)1.24 (0.75 to 2.07)
 Female×age group (>40)1.96 (1.21 to 3.17)
  • Model 1: adjusted for other factors shown in the table.

  • Model 2: adjusted for other factors.

  • Model 3: adjusted for all possible two-way interactions terms with ethnicity. Only interaction terms that were significant are presented.