Table 2

Short-term and long-term study outcomes

Short-term outcomesLong-term outcomes
Neonatal outcomes
  • Neonatal mortality

  • Infant mortality

  • Preterm birth—gestational age <37 weeks

  • Post-term birth—gestational age of 42 or more completed weeks of pregnancy

  • Small for gestational age—birth weight <10th centile for its gestational age and sex using a Canadian standard (Kramer et al, 2001)

  • Large for gestational age—birth weight is above 90th centile for their gestational age and sex using Canadian standard (Kramer et al, 2001)

  • Low birth weight

  • High birth weight

  • Apgar scores—5 min Apgar score of 7 or less

  • Length of stay in hospital >3 days

  • Neonatal intensive care unit admissions

  • Neonatal readmissions

  • Breastfeeding initiation

  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

Postnatal adaption syndrome: including: respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), convulsions of newborn, feeding difficulties, jaundice, hypoglycaemia, Apgar scores—5 min Apgar score of 7 or less Congenital anomalies: Down syndrome, neural tube defects, congenital heart defects (ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects)
Severe neonatal morbidity (including: neonatal sepsis, hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), brachial plexus injury/palsy, persistent fetal circulation, neonatal hypertension, Grade III or IV intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), intubation, gastroschisis, omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia)
Social outcomes:
  • Teen pregnancy

  • Child taken into care

Neurodevelopmental disorders:
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)

  • ADHD

Other disorders and disabilities:
  • Motor disorders: developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, Tourette syndrome

  • Communication, speech and language disorders

  • Asthma

  • Diabetes

  • Epilepsy

  • Vision/hearing disability

  • Learning disabilities

Educational outcomes:
  • Special education funding

  • Grade repetition

  • Successful education outcomes—EDI, grade 3 assessment in reading and numeracy, grade 7 assessments in math and school engagement, grade 8 assessment in reading and writing, grade 12 standard tests—language arts and math

  • High school completion

Mental health:
  • Mood and anxiety disorders

  • Substance use disorders

  • Personality disorders

  • Conduct disorder

  • Suicide attempts and completion