TableĀ 2

Individual reasons for retraction and classification into the main categories of honest error, misconduct or unclear

Reason for retractionHonest errorMisconductUnclear
Breach of editorial policy1
Co-authors unaware of manuscript submission5
Compromised peer review44
Data falsification/fabrication10
Data unreliable68
Duplicate publication71
Image duplication15
No consent1
No ethical approval5
No permission for data32
Published in error10
Undeclared conflict of interest3
Sub-totals per broad category1710215