Group | Group A | Group B | Group C | Group D | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Exposure | Postnatal exposed | In utero exposed | Unexposed | Older | ||

n | 81 | 68 | 70 | Statistical tests (groups A,B,C) | 112 | |

Age (years) | Mean | 31 | 30 | 28 | ANOVA p<0.0001 | 48 |

SD | 0.4 | 0.3 | 0.3 | 0.7 | ||

BMI (kg/m^{2}) | Mean | 20.3 | 19.4 | 20.0 | ns | 20.6 |

SD | 3.1 | 2.9 | 2.6 | 3.3 | ||

BMI category | Underweight n (%) | 26 (32) | 33 (49) | 21 (30) | Proportional odds model df=2, deviance ratio=3.25, p=0.039 | 34 (30) |

Normal weight n (%) | 34 (42) | 26 (38) | 39 (56) | 45 (40) | ||

Overweight n (%) | 21 (26) | 9 (13) | 10 (14) | 33 (30) | ||

Waist circumference | Normal | 71 (88) | 63 (93) | 65 (93) | ns | 89 (79) |

High (M≥90 cm; F≥80 cm) | 10 (12) | 5 (7) | 5 (7) | 23 (21) | ||

0 min glucose (mmol/l) | Mean | 4.8 | 4.8 | 4.7 | ns | 5.3 |

SD | 0.5 | 0.5 | 0.6 | 1.9 | ||

120 min glucose (mmol/l) | Mean | 5.2 | 5.8 | 5.6 | ns | 6.4 |

SD | 1.4 | 1.6 | 2.0 | 3.7 | ||

IFG/IGT/T2D n (%) | 0=no | 74 (81) | 59 (87) | 60 (86) | ns | 77 (69) |

1=yes | 7 (9) | 9 (13) | 10 (14) | 35 (31) |

Non-significant statistical comparisons (p≥0.05) are marked ‘ns’. Data on older offspring exposed to famine after the age of 16 years are presented (in italics) for reference but are not included in statistical testing.

ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; IFG, impaired fasting glucose IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; T2D, type 2 diabetes.