Table 1

Age, body mass, weight circumference and glucose parameters from offspring exposed postnatally, in utero and unexposed to famine, and statistical comparisons of groups A, B and C (proportional odds model for weight as an ordered categorical variable, and ANOVA for continuous variables)

 GroupGroup AGroup BGroup C Group D
 ExposurePostnatal exposedIn utero exposedUnexposed Older
 n816870Statistical tests (groups A,B,C)112
Age (years)Mean313028ANOVA p<0.000148
SD0.40.30.30.7
BMI (kg/m2)Mean20.319.420.0ns20.6
SD3.12.92.63.3
BMI categoryUnderweight n (%)26 (32)33 (49)21 (30)Proportional odds model df=2, deviance ratio=3.25, p=0.03934 (30)
Normal weight n (%)34 (42)26 (38)39 (56)45 (40)
Overweight n (%)21 (26)9 (13)10 (14)33 (30)
Waist circumferenceNormal71 (88)63 (93)65 (93)ns89 (79)
High (M≥90 cm; F≥80 cm)10 (12)5 (7)5 (7)23 (21)
0 min glucose (mmol/l)Mean4.84.84.7ns5.3
SD0.50.50.61.9
120 min glucose (mmol/l)Mean5.25.85.6ns6.4
SD1.41.62.03.7
IFG/IGT/T2D n (%)0=no74 (81)59 (87)60 (86)ns77 (69)
1=yes7 (9)9 (13)10 (14)35 (31)
  • Non-significant statistical comparisons (p≥0.05) are marked ‘ns’. Data on older offspring exposed to famine after the age of 16 years are presented (in italics) for reference but are not included in statistical testing.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; IFG, impaired fasting glucose IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; T2D, type 2 diabetes.