Table 1

Study inclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • Inpatient at the hospice

  • ≥18 years of age

  • Patient able to understand and communicate in English

  • Urinary catheter in situ (weeks 1–6 of study only)*

  • Patient unable to provide fully informed consent

  • Judgement made by senior doctor on the clinical team that approaching patient about the study would cause undue distress

  • Patients too unwell (this was a clinical decision made by the treating team)

  • Patient unable to understand English

  • *During the first 6 weeks of the study, a urinary catheter was part of the inclusion criteria. With an amendment to the research ethics approval, this requirement was withdrawn for the latter 6 weeks of the study to facilitate increased participation.