Table 3

Infants with anaemia or abnormal iron indices outside reference ranges at 4 and 12 months after elective CS or vaginal birth after early (≤10 s) or delayed (≥180 s) umbilical cord clamping*

Absolute risk reduction (95% CI), %
CSnECCnDCCnp ValueCS vs ECCCS vs DCC
4 months
 Anaemia (Hb<105 g/L)6 (10.5%)5720 (13.1%)15320 (13.6%)1470.84
 Anaemia and iron deficiency0 (0%)522 (1.3%)1530 (0%)1480.27
 Iron deficiency (2 of the 4)†0 (0%)528 (5.2%)1531 (0.7%)1440.025.2 (−2.9 to 5.2)0.7 (−1.8 to 0.7)
 MCV<73 nm0 (0%)578 (5.2%)1533 (2.0%)1470.095.2 (−2.3 to 5.2)2.0 (−3.0 to 2.0)
 Ferritin <20 umol/L1 (1.8%)5511 (7.2%)1530 (0%)1490.0025.4 (−3.8 to 7.7)−1.8 (−1.8 to 0.5)
 Transferrin saturation <10%6 (10.7%)5622 (14.4%)1538 (5.4%)1480.033.7 (−8.9 to 12.0)−5.3 (−14.5 to 2.8)
 Transferrin receptors <7 mg/L0 (0%)550 (0%)1530 (0%)149NA
12 months
 Anaemia (Hb<110 g/L)9 (17.3%)5216 (12.2%)13122 (17.1%)1290.49
 Anaemia and iron deficiency1 (2.1%)461 (0.8%)1300 (0%)1280.30
 Iron deficiency (2 of the 4)†2 (4.3%)477 (5.3%)1323 (2.3%)1280.464
 MCV<73 nm0 (0%)523 (2.3%)1313 (2.3%)1290.54
 Ferritin <20 umol/L2 (4.2%)463 (2.2%)1362 (1.6%)1290.58
 Transferrin saturation <10%6 (12.2%)4925 (18.5%)13522 (16.9%)1300.60
 Transferrin receptors <5.92 mg/L4 (8.2%)4510 (7.4%)1369 (6.9%)1300.96
  • *Data are numbers (%).

  • †Defined as having two or more of iron status indicators (low ferritin, low MCV, low transferrin saturation and/or high transferrin receptors) out of reference range.

  • CS, caesarean section; DCC, delayed cord clamping; ECC, early cord clamping; Hb, haemoglobin; MCV, mean cell volume; NA, not applicable.