Table 3

Differences in fitness, physical activity and body mass index in 10–15.9-year-olds from the East of England measured in 2009 and values of students from the same schools assessed in 2013–2014

 Mean (SD)Effect sizeMean difference (95%CI) vs pre-2012ANCOVA (main effect)
Post-2012 (n=513)Pre-2012 (n=407)NoneBriefContinued
Embedded Image (mL/kg/min)†44.2 (5.4)46.2 (5.4)d=0.37−2.7 (−1.8 to −3.9)†−3.0 (−5.0 to −1.0)†−0.7 (−1.7 to 0.3)F=12.1
 Physical activity (PAQ)2.92 (0.75)3.02 (0.75)d=0.14−0.10 (−0.25 to 0.19)0.05 (−0.11 to 0.26)0.08 (−0.06 to 0.28F=0.99
 BMI (z-score)0.32 (1.24)0.71 (1.18)d=0.300.36 (0.25 to 0.64)†0.39 (0.06 to 0.83)†0.33 (0.15 to 0.58)†F=7.6
Post-2012 (n=418)Pre-2012 (n=366)NoneBriefContinued
Embedded Image (mL/kg/min)*40.1 (5.6)42.2 (6.6)d=0.37−2.9 (−1.8 to −3.9)†−2.4 (−4.5 to −0.4)†−1.3 (−2.4 to −0.2)†F=10.4
 Physical activity (PAQ)2.55 (0.65)2.58 (0.65)d=0.01−0.09 (−0.21 to 0.12)−0.01 (−0.30 to 0.29)0.14 (−0.11 to 0.22)F=0.93
 BMI (z-score)0.39 (1.06)0.52 (1.06)d=0.12−0.07 (−0.13 to 0.26)−0.08 (−0.32 to 0.41)−0.37 (0.18 to 0.58)†F=5.6
  • Pre-2012 values are shown as unadjusted means (SD). All other values shown are mean differences (post-2012 minus pre-2012) based on estimated marginal means adjusted for decimal age and area-level deprivation.13

  • *Embedded Image (mL/kg/min) estimated from 20 m shuttle-run test using the equation of Leger et al.12

  • †Mean difference is significant (Bonferroni post hoc test of estimated marginal means, p<0.05, pre-2012 vs post-2012 group).

  • ‡Physical activity is 7-day self-reported value (1–5) from the PAQ.17

  • ANCOVA, analysis of covariance (covariates: decimal age, area-level deprivation); BMI, body mass index presented as age-normalised and sex-normalised z-score based on UK1990 Growth Reference17a; factors, groups (pre-2012, None, Brief, Continued); PAQ, Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents.17