Table 5

Relationship between having a GPA>75th centile and leptin resistance in Chilean youths after controlling for other health, sociodemographic and educational influences (n=568)

Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Hyperleptinaemia0.35***0.17 to 0.720.35***0.17 to 0.730.42*0.19 to 0.89
Overweight0.660.40 to 1.100.670.42 to 1.130.620.37 to 1.05
Obesity0.830.42 to 1.640.830.42 to 1.640.740.36 to 1.54
IR0.790.41 to 0.950.690.44 to 1.060.730.46 to 1.13
Unhealthy diet(…)0.43***0.26 to 0.780.41***0.24 to 0.75
Physically inactive(…)1.010.63 to 1.591.000.66 to 1.54
Male sex(…)(…)0.43***0.28 to 0.71
Maternal education: incomplete HS(…)(…)1.070.68 to 1.67
Paternal education: incomplete HS(…)(…)0.57*0.35 to 0.93
Adult HS(…)(…)0.35***0.18 to 0.69
No Fe supplement (infancy)(…)(…)0.710.48 to 1.06
  • (…) Non-observed.

  • Significance level: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Hyperleptinaemia defined according to the cut-offs published by Köster-Weber et al.

  • Overweight: BMI z-score >1 and ≥2 SD; obesity: BMI z-score ≥2 SD.

  • IR: HOMA-IR 2.6.

  • Unhealthy diet: diet high in simple carbohydrates and saturated fats.

  • Physically inactive: scheduled PA≤90 min/week.

  • Adult HS: education for students who in the past were unable to receive their diploma.

  • BMI, body mass index; GPA, grade point average; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment of IR; HS, high school; IR, insulin resistance; PA, physical activity.