Table 4

Relationship between having a GPA>50th centile and leptin resistance in Chilean youths after controlling for other health, sociodemographic and educational influences (n=568)

Model 1Model 2Model 3
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Hyperleptinaemia0.50**0.30 to 0.840.50*0.33 to 0.940.56*0.32 to 0.95
Overweight0.870.57 to 1.300.700.38 to 1.270.650.35 to 1.22
Obesity0.990.86 to 1.180.860.49 to 1.500.810.45 to 1.33
IR0.940.80 to 1.110.930.49 to 1.090.780.55 to 1.18
Unhealthy diet(…)0.530.34 to 0.810.52**0.33 to 0.81
Physically inactive(…)0.890.59 to 1.340.990.64 to 1.53
Male sex(…)(…)0.63**0.28 to 0.80
Maternal education: incomplete HS(…)(…)1.090.82 to 1.74
Paternal education: incomplete HS(…)(…)0.960.65 to 1.45
Adult HS(…)(…)0.38***0.23 to 0.62
No Fe supplement (infancy)(…)(…)0.910.64 to 1.28
  • (…) Non-observed.

  • Significance level: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Hyperleptinaemia defined according to the cut-offs published by Köster-Weber et al.

  • Overweight: BMI z-score >1 and ≥2 SD; obesity: BMI z-score ≥2 SD.

  • IR: HOMA-IR 2.6.

  • Unhealthy diet: diet high in simple carbohydrates and saturated fats.

  • Physically inactive: scheduled PA≤90 min/week.

  • Adult HS: education for students who in the past were unable to receive their diploma.

  • BMI, body mass index; GPA, grade point average; HOMA, homeostasis model assessment of IR; HS, high school; IR, insulin resistance; PA, physical activity.