Table 1

Characteristics of the children in relation to SDQ scores of mental health problems

Emotional problemsConduct problemsHyperactivity problemsPeer problems
N
Total
Mean score (SD)Abnormal score
N (%)
Mean score (SD)Abnormal score
N (%)
Mean score (SD)Abnormal score
N (%)
Mean score (SD)Abnormal score
N (%)
Total92151.57 (1.74)683 (7.4)1.37 (1.26)555 (6.0)2.68 (2.12)937 (10.2)1.09 (1.52)771 (8.4)
Gender
 Female46551.77 (1.84)424 (9.1)1.33 (1.20)228 (4.9)2.45 (2.00)382 (8.2)1.02 (1.45)335 (7.2)
 Male45601.38 (1.62)259 (5.7)1.42 (1.31)327 (7.2)2.91 (2.20)555 (12.2)1.17 (1.59)436 (9.6)
Age, years
 332921.13 (1.38)94 (2.9)1.41 (1.17)163 (5.0)2.76 (1.92)295 (9.0)0.93 (1.46)246 (7.5)
 623781.53 (1.73)172 (7.2)1.18 (1.22)112 (4.7)2.36 (2.16)198 (8.3)0.89 (1.51)185 (7.8)
 1119491.81 (1.85)180 (9.2)1.37 (1.35)143 (7.3)2.54 (2.16)197 (10.1)1.35 (1.56)196 (10.1)
 1515962.27 (2.01)237 (14.8)1.58 (1.34)137 (8.6)3.14 (2.27)247 (15.5)1.39 (1.52)144 (9.0)
Primary carer's education
 Master25401.32 (1.53)113 (4.4)1.22 (1.13)101 (4.0)2.38 (1.94)177 (7.0)0.76 (1.28)119 (4.7)
 Bachelor31061.54 (1.73)225 (7.2)1.32 (1.20)161 (5.2)2.59 (2.07)283 (9.1)0.90 (1.32)166 (5.3)
 Vocational17251.76 (1.84)161 (9.3)1.45 (1.34)124 (7.2)2.99 (2.23)237 (13.7)1.33 (1.63)183 (10.6)
 School18441.80 (1.89)184 (10.0)1.59 (1.40)169 (9.2)2.95 (2.24)240 (13.0)1.65 (1.83)303 (16.4)
Household income
 Upper quartile23561.38 (1.61)135 (5.7)1.23 (1.14)88 (3.7)2.47 (2.06)200 (8.5)0.81 (1.27)106 (4.5)
 Upper middle quartile23681.47 (1.69)151 (6.4)1.28 (1.19)127 (5.4)2.54 (1.99)199 (8.4)0.82 (1.28)112 (4.7)
 Lower middle quartile23061.67 (1.77)186 (8.1)1.45 (1.28)149 (6.5)2.84 (2.18)264 (11.4)1.10 (1.49)187 (8.1)
 Lower quartile21841.79 (1.88)211 (9.7)1.55 (1.41)191 (8.7)2.89 (2.22)274 (12.5)1.70 (1.85)366 (16.8)
Eczema
 Known disease ever15381.75 (1.84)140 (9.1)1.40 (1.24)91 (5.9)2.82 (2.15)181 (11.8)1.02 (1.48)118 (7.7)
 Current symptoms8861.76 (1.84)77 (8.7)1.52 (1.29)60 (6.8)2.88 (2.09)103 (11.6)1.02 (1.50)74 (8.4)
Asthma
 Known disease ever6492.05 (1.98)84 (12.9)1.52 (1.34)50 (7.7)3.04 (2.34)98 (15.1)1.30 (1.58)66 (10.2)
 Current symptoms10791.88 (1.92)116 (10.8)1.61 (1.33)96 (8.9)3.17 (2.25)167 (15.5)1.12 (1.50)90 (8.3)
Hay fever
 Known disease ever7962.11 (1.96)101 (12.7)1.54 (1.38)70 (8.8)2.85 (2.21)101 (12.7)1.31 (1.61)90 (11.3)
 Current symptoms*10002.42 (2.02)155 (15.5)1.58 (1.35)81 (8.1)3.08 (2.23)145 (14.5)1.44 (1.56)107 (10.7)
Known atopic disease ever
 None65911.46 (1.68)426 (6.5)1.33 (1.23)362 (5.5)2.60 (2.08)609 (9.2)1.07 (1.51)526 (8.0)
 118311.78 (1.83)155 (8.5)1.46 (1.32)133 (7.3)2.86 (2.16)221 (12.1)1.14 (1.55)171 (9.3)
 2 or more4382.17 (2.03)68 (15.5)1.44 (1.25)29 (6.6)2.85 (2.26)58 (13.2)1.18 (1.54)41 (9.4)
Current symptoms of atopic disease
 None66031.42 (1.64)400 (6.1)1.30 (1.22)340 (5.1)2.55 (2.07)589 (8.9)1.05 (1.52)531 (8.0)
 119811.87 (1.90)191 (9.6)1.55 (1.32)159 (8.0)2.94 (2.14)240 (12.1)1.13 (1.48)166 (8.4)
 2 or more*4522.33 (2.03)72 (15.9)1.63 (1.34)37 (8.2)3.32 (2.32)82 (18.1)1.34 (1.62)48 (10.6)
  • Abnormal score refers to children with an abnormal SDQ score, defined by the cut-off scores.

  • *For children aged 3 years, current symptoms of hay fever could not be reported.

  • N, number of participants; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.