Table 2

Multivariable logistic regression analysis

VariableAdjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Patient demographics
Age1.01 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.001
Gender (male)1.08 (1.00 to 1.17)0.042
Ethnicity
 OthersReference
 Chinese1.08 (0.88 to 1.33)0.486
 Indian1.26 (0.99 to 1.59)0.057
 Malay1.21 (0.97 to 1.53)0.1
Social determinants of health
 Required financial assistance using Medifund1.64 (1.27 to 2.11)<0.001
 Stayed in a subsidised ward during index admission1.65 (1.47 to 1.86)<0.001
Past healthcare use
ED visits (6 month before index admission)1.11 (1.06 to 1.16)<0.001
Specialist clinic visits (1 year before index admission)1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)<0.001
Hospital admissions (1 year before index admission)1.4 (1.35 to 1.46)<0.001
Markers of acute illness burden
Index admission was urgent1.05 (0.95 to 1.16)0.365
Required second line antibiotics during index admission0.97 (0.82 to 1.15)0.749
Required inpatient dialysis during index admission2.33 (1.98 to 2.74)<0.001
Required intravenous furosemide 40 mg and above during index admission1.49 (1.31 to 1.70)<0.001
Required isolation during index admission1.16 (0.85 to 1.59)0.342
Length of stay of index admission1 (0.99 to 1.00)0.862
Charlson Comorbidity Index*1.33 (1.31 to 1.35)<0.001
Medical comorbidities
Stroke0.94 (0.69 to 1.27)0.699
Metastatic disease1.02 (0.88 to 1.18)0.788
Non-metastatic malignancy1.08 (0.88 to 1.32)0.467
Peripheral vascular disease0.97 (0.84 to 1.12)0.681
Heart failure or fluid overload1.16 (0.93 to 1.44)0.173
Pressure ulcer1.17 (1.00 to 1.37)0.05
Thromboembolism0.93 (0.83 to 1.05)0.253
Spine fracture1.08 (0.85 to 1.36)0.513
Coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction1.07 (0.94 to 1.22)0.331
Hip fracture0.98 (0.74 to 1.27)0.857
Atrial fibrillation1.05 (0.90 to 1.22)0.54
Epilepsy0.83 (0.56 to 1.19)0.317
Parkinsonism1.32 (0.98 to 1.76)0.06
Anxiety0.74 (0.49 to 1.09)0.142
Bipolar disorder1.52 (0.79 to 2.80)0.189
Collagen vascular disease0.73 (0.52 to 1.01)0.06
Dementia0.95 (0.77 to 1.17)0.637
Hypothyroidism1.07 (0.83 to 1.38)0.589
Chronic kidney disease, stages 1–40.94 (0.80 to 1.11)0.479
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.14 (0.90 to 1.43)0.284
Osteoarthritis1.03 (0.89 to 1.18)0.724
Benign prostatic hypertrophy0.95 (0.79 to 1.13)0.553
Asthma1.1 (0.88 to 1.37)0.401
Hyperlipidaemia1.01 (0.90 to 1.14)0.864
Hypertension0.97 (0.87 to 1.10)0.671
Chronic kidney disease stage 5 or end-stage renal failure0.98 (0.82 to 1.17)0.839
Diabetes1.02 (0.91 to 1.14)0.728
History of alcoholism1.14 (0.87 to 1.48)0.326
Treatment with antidepressants‡2.51 (2.26 to 2.78)<0.001
  • *Based on ICD codes of index admission.

  • †Based on ICD codes in the preceding 7 years.

  • ‡Based on discharge and outpatient prescriptions in the preceding 1 year.

  • ED, emergency department; ICD, International Classification of Diseases.