Table 2

Mental health problems among children with eczema, asthma and hay fever compared with children without

Emotional problems (SDQ score)Conduct problems
(SDQ score)
Hyperactivity problems
(SDQ score)
Peer problems
(SDQ score)
Mean difference (95% CI)p ValueMean difference (95% CI)p ValueMean difference (95% CI)p ValueMean difference (95% CI)p Value
Eczema*
 Known disease ever0.24 (0.13 to 0.35)<0.0010.05 (−0.03 to 0.13)†0.2420.21 (0.08 to 0.34)0.001−0.08 (−0.18 to 0.03)0.153
 Current symptoms0.26 (0.12 to 0.39)<0.0010.19 (0.09 to 0.29)<0.0010.32 (0.16 to 0.48)<0.001−0.06 (−0.18 to 0.06)0.336
Asthma*
 Known disease ever0.26 (0.09 to 0.44)0.0030.09 (−0.04 to 0.22)0.1780.30 (0.10 to 0.51)0.0040.05 (−0.10 to 0.20)0.509
 Current symptoms0.45 (0.32 to 0.58)<0.0010.28 (0.18 to 0.38)<0.0010.52 (0.35 to 0.69)†<0.001−0.04 (−0.15 to 0.08)0.526
Hay fever*
 Known disease ever0.39 (0.22 to 0.56)<0.0010.15 (0.03 to 0.27)0.0150.13 (−0.06 to 0.32)0.1840.09 (−0.07 to 0.26)0.257
 Current symptoms‡0.57 (0.42 to 0.72)<0.0010.22 (0.11 to 0.33)<0.0010.44 (0.26 to 0.61)<0.0010.14 (0.01 to 0.26)0.033
Known atopic disease ever*<0.0010.021<0.0010.274
 1 vs none0.29 (0.18 to 0.40)0.11 (0.03 to 0.19)0.23 (0.11 to 0.36)0.06 (−0.04 to 0.16)
 2 or more vs none0.45 (0.24 to 0.67)0.05 (−0.09 to 0.19)0.21 (−0.03 to 0.45)−0.09 (−0.29 to 0.10)
Current symptoms of atopic disease*<0.001<0.001<0.0010.415
 1 vs none0.38 (0.28 to 0.49)0.23 (0.16 to 0.31)0.35 (0.23 to 0.47)−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.06)†
 2 or more vs none‡0.72 (0.51 to 0.93)0.36 (0.20 to 0.51)0.82 (0.57 to 1.08)0.09 (−0.09 to 0.28)†
Primary carer's education§<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Bachelor vs master0.15 (0.06 to 0.23)0.11 (0.04 to 0.18)0.19 (0.08 to 0.30)0.17 (0.09 to 0.25)
 Vocational vs master0.29 (0.18 to 0.40)0.24 (0.15 to 0.32)0.58 (0.44 to 0.72)0.65 (0.54 to 0.76)
 School vs master0.40 (0.29 to 0.52)0.40 (0.31 to 0.49)0.55 (0.41 to 0.69)1.04 (0.93 to 1.16)
  • Reference categories: known disease ever versus children without the atopic condition ever; current symptoms versus no current symptoms of the atopic condition. Reference level was 0.

  • *Analyses adjusted for gender, age and primary carer's educational level.

  • †Effect measure modification between the atopic condition and primary carer's educational level is significant (p<0.05). Joint effect estimates are given in table 3.

  • ‡For children aged 3 years, current symptoms of hay fever could not be reported.

  • §Analyses adjusted for gender, age and symptoms of atopic diseases.

  • SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.