Table 2

Retrospective studies

CitationTypeQuality assessmentCountryParticipantsStudy designOutcome measuresMain findings
Gunja and Brown (2012)65Full paperModerateAustraliaBoys and girls (n=62)
All ages
Retrospective review of NSW Poisons Information Centre data (January 2004–December 2010)Calls relating to caffeinated ED ingestion62 children were reported to have accidentally ingested EDs (mean age 36 months, range 7–120 months)
14 had symptoms probably related to EDs (most commonly hyperactivity) and 9 required hospital assessment
Hernandez et al (2009)Conference abstractModerateUSABoys and girls (n=428)
All ages
Retrospective statistical analysis of Texas regional poison centres dataCalls relating to ED ingestion, negative health consequencesThe largest affected group was teenagers (n=114, compared with 84 cases <5 years)
Significant increases were noted between 2000 and 2001 (+100%); 2003–2044 (+87.5%) and 2005–2006 (+85%)
Major symptoms were: rapid heart rate, nervousness/agitation, nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, dizziness, tremors, chest discomfort and headache
Seifert et al (2011)13Full paperModerateUSABoys and girls (n=1568)
All ages
Retrospective analysis of US National Poison Data SystemExposure to EDs, adverse health events (toxicity)Single product, caffeine-containing exposures disproportionately involved those aged <20 years (particularly males) compared with other substance exposures
Age groups in this category were: 47% children <6 years, 13% 6–12 years, 19% 13–19 years, 12% 20–25 years, 9% >25 years
13–19-year-olds had the highest proportion of moderate or major effects (19%); the latter included cardiac disturbances, hypertension and hyperthermia
Seifert et al (2013)64Full paperModerateUSABoys and girls (n=4854)
All ages
Retrospective analysis of US National Poison Data SystemED use and ED-related toxicitiesOf the 4854 calls relating to ED exposure, 3192 cases were categorised as ‘unknown’, 1480 were non-alcoholic and 182 alcoholic
Children under 6 had the highest proportion of unintentional exposures to non-alcoholic ED; minor or moderate adverse effects were reported
Adolescents (13–19) had the highest proportions of intentional exposures and the largest proportion of cases of minor to moderate effects, with one major effect
For alcoholic ED, 54.3% ingestions were 13–19 years, 4.1% 6–12 years and 9.8% <6 years; a greater proportion of alcoholic ED cases were advised to seek treatment