Table 5

Qualitative and mixed method studies

CitationTypeQuality assessmentCountryParticipantsStudy designAimsMain findings
Bunting et al (2013)68Full paperStrongNew ZealandBoys and girls (n=12)
16–35 years
Focus groups stratified by age (16–21, 22–28 and 29–35 years)To obtain participants’ perceptions of caffeinated EDsThemes: advertising, age, alcohol, brand, efficacy, energy-seeking, gender, health, peer influence, product attributes, and safety
Taste appeared to be the primary driver motivating the purchase and repurchase of EDs
Costa et al (2014)69Full paperStrongAustraliaBoys and girls (n=40)
12–15 years
Focus groupsTo explore perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED useThemes: knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects and influences on ED use
Participants were familiar with a range of EDs and most had used them at least once, but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients and could not easily differentiate them from other drink types
Jones (2011)70Full paperStrongAustraliaBoys and girls (n=95)
12–14 years
15–17 years
Focus groups (separate by age and gender), supplemented with school and online survey dataTo explore perceptions and consumption of alcohol EDs (AEDs)Many participants commenting that they had consumed AEDs, or seen others consuming them. Findings suggest they may be particularly popular among young females
Drinking in the 15–17 age group took place predominantly at parties and friends’ houses, as well as at family gatherings
Only a small number of survey respondents raised negative consequences of consuming AEDs
O'Dea (2003)71Full paperStrongAustraliaBoys and girls (n=78) 11–18 yearsFocus groupsTo explore the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, along with reasons for consumptionIn the 2 weeks prior to the focus groups, 42.3% of participants had consumed EDs (compared with 54.6% who consumed sports drinks)
Reasons for consumption of EDs: energy, taste, sports performance, soft drink substitute, peer group pressure, attractive packaging