Table 1

Experimental studies

CitationTypeQuality assessmentCountryParticipantsStudy designIntervention and doseOutcome measuresMain findings
Abian-Vicen et al (2014)67Full paperStrongSpainBoys (n=16)
Mean 14.9±0.8 years
Double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design with repeated measuresA commercially available ED (dose: 3 mg caffeine/kg body weight)Jump performance, power, endurance and shot precision in highly skilled basketball playersSignificant increases in: jump height, mean leg muscle power output, perceived muscle power, endurance and vigour during the hours following the test
Decreased rate of perceived exhaustion
No difference in: precision of basketball shots, total number of free throws per second or distances covered
Gallo-Salazar et al (2015)66Full paperStrongSpainBoys and girls (n=14)
Mean 16 ±1 years
Double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design with repeated measuresA commercially available ED (dose: 3 mg caffeine/kg body weight)Physical performance in elite junior tennis playersSignificant increases in: handgrip force, running pace at high intensity, and number of sprints during a simulated match
No difference in: peak running speed; ball velocity during the serving test
Sweat rate during the simulated match was slightly increased, producing significantly higher dehydration
Temple et al (2010)37Full paperStrongUSABoys and girls (n=52)
12–17 years
Double blind, placebo-controlled experimental designDrinks containing 0 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg or 200 mg of caffeineCardiovascular and subjective responses to caffeine and snack food ingestionDose-dependent increases in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and decreases in HR
In boys, high-caffeine consumers showed greater increases in DBP over time than did low-consuming boys
High-caffeine consumers had more energy, protein and fat in their typical diet