Table 1

Key eligibility criteria for IMPRESS-AF

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Permanent AFLVEF<55% (echocardiography)
Age 50 years old or overSevere systemic illness (life expectancy <2 years)
Ability to understand and complete questionnaires (with or without use of a translater/translated materials)Severe COPD (eg, requiring home oxygen or chronic oral steroid therapy)
Severe mitral/aortal valve stenosis/regurgitation
Significant renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 220 µmol/L or above), anuria, active renal insufficiency, rapidly progressing or severe impairment of renal function, confirmed or suspected renal insufficiency in patients with diabetes/diabetic nephropathy
Increase in potassium level to >5 mmol/L
Recent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (within 3 months)
Use of aldosterone antagonist within 14 days before randomisation
Use of or potassium sparing diuretic within 14 days before randomisation
Systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg
Addison's disease
Hypersensitivity to spironolactone or any of the ingredients in the product
Any participant characteristic that may interfere with adherence to the trial protocol
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IMPRESS-AF, IMproved exercise tolerance In heart failure With PReserved Ejection fraction by Spironolactone On myocardial fibrosiS In Atrial; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.