Table 4

Summary characteristics of included studies

CharacteristicTotal (n=68)
nPer cent
 Repeated cross-sectional4870.6
 Single cross-sectional1927.9
World region*
 North America2536.7
 Other world region22.9
 >1 world region57.4
Sample age*
 Adolescent and young adult (11–26)1826.5
 Adult (18+)2841.2
 Adolescent and adult (12+)2130.9
Sample size*
 10 000–19 9991014.7
 20 000–49 999913.2
 50 000–99 9991014.7
 >100 000913.5
Indicator type (broad category and individual indicator)†
Indicators of any alcohol use3551.5
 Prevalence of any use2638.2
 Prevalence of abstinence1116.2
 Total amount of alcohol consumed1927.9
 Frequency of alcohol use57.4
Indicators of problematic alcohol use3044.1
 Prevalence of heavy episodic or binge drinking1014.7
 Prevalence of risky drinking1614.9
 Frequency of heavy episodic or binge drinking57.4
 Age of onset of alcohol use811.8
Indicators of alcohol-related harms1826.5
 Prevalence of alcohol-related problems or negative consequences1826.5
 Prevalence of alcohol use disorder1319.1
 Frequency of alcohol-related problems or negative consequences45.9
  • *Summary groupings are presented here; however, estimates included in meta-analysis coded country, sample age and size specific to each estimate. Sample size and age were not reported by all studies.

  • †Percentages sum to >100% for alcohol indicators as many studies reported data on more than one indicator.