Table 2

Goodness of fit indices for measurement invariance model comparisons across 16 countries

NRMSEA 90% CICFISRMRGFIΔCFI
Unidimensional model
 Austria12850.039 (0.036 to 0.043)10.070.99
 Germany4600.040 (0.038 to 0.045)10.080.98
 Sweden4750.053 (0.051 to 0.060)0.990.080.97
 The Netherlands6140.050 (0.044 to 0.056)0.990.101
 Spain9420.056 (0.053 to 0.066)0.980.070.97
 Italy9650.057 (0.054 to 0.066)0.990.100.97
 France14670.052 (0.049 to 0.058)0.990.090.99
 Denmark4000.051 (0.048 to 0.064)10.130.98
 Switzerland6910.048 (0.044 to 0.053)0.990.101
 Belgium14780.050 (0.046 to 0.053)0.990.070.98
 Czechia16500.045 (0.042 to 0.048)10.070.98
 Poland4970.049 (0.039 to 0.051)10.070.98
 Hungary9610.055 (0.051 to 0.060)0.980.110.97
 Portugal6280.052 (0.047 to 0.058)0.990.080.97
 Slovenia7690.053 (0.049 to 0.063)0.990.070.98
 Estonia20430.047 (0.044 to 0.050)10.070.98
Configural0.044 (0.036 to 0.049)0.99
Metric0.061 (0.058 to 0.065)0.99≤0.01
  • Factor loadings in the metric invariance model were: walking 100 m (λ=0.75), sitting 2 hours (λ=0.42), getting up from a chair (λ=0.62), climbing stairs (λ=0.64), climbing a stair (λ=0.70), kneeling (λ=0.64), reaching arms (λ=0.53), pulling large objects (λ=0.74), lifting heavy weights (λ=0.68), picking a small coin (λ=0.51), dressing (λ=0.71), walking across a room (λ=0.87), bathing (λ=0.86), eating (λ=0.77), getting into/out of bed (λ=0.77), toileting (λ=0.88), using a map (λ=0.59), preparing a hot meal (λ=0.88), shopping (λ=0.87), telephone calls (λ=0.79), taking medications (λ=0.86), housework (λ=0.75), managing money (λ=0.74).

  • CFI, comparative fit index; GFI, goodness of fit index; RMSEA, root mean square error of approximation; SRMR, standardised root mean square residual; ΔCIF, comparative fit index difference test.