Table 1

Characteristics of the participants by tertiles of sitting time

Duration of sitting time (hours/day)Tertile 1 (2.2–5.0 h)Tertile 2 (5.0–6.9 h)Tertile 3 (>7.1 h)F/χ2p Value
Participants (number)677695682
Sitting time (hours/day)4.4±0.65.9±0.5*7.7±0.8*†9.32<0.001
Age (years)57.7±6.657.3±6.056.8±5.52.3840.093
BMI (kg/m2)22.92±1.9422.79±2.0323.13±2.08*†4.0270.024
SBP (mm Hg)124±16123±16124±150.2270.797
DBP (mm Hg)76±7.976±8.077±8.00.5620.57
TC (mmol/L)4.28±0.764.53±0.79*4.84±0.84*†2.690.043
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.31±0.171.29±0.191.25±0.24*†9.517<0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L)2.57±0.392.64±0.43*2.77±0.43*†14.01<0.001
TG (mmol/L)‡1.04 (0.81–1.35)1.39 (1.13–1.71)*1.58 (1.10–1.86)*†9.22<0.001
Cr (μmol/L)‡58 (52–68)61 (55–70)59 (54–72)0.3830.227
ALAT (U/L)‡16 (13–23)18 (14–25)*20 (15–27)*†7.120.001
ASAT (U/L)‡19 (15–25)21 (17–28)23 (17–30)*†3.350.029
ASAT/ALAT‡1.13 (0.96–1.36)1.14 (1.05–1.29)1.13 (1.04–1.20)2.290.133
GGT (U/L)22.0±7.423.0±8.7*24.0±9.6*†9.52<0.001
FPG (mmol/L)5.6±0.55.7±0.96.0±0.9*†7.2310.001
2-hPG (mmol/L)6.8±2.56.9±1.7*7.4±2.0*†6.0280.004
HbA1c (%)5.4±0.65.5±0.75.7±0.8*†7.93<0.001
FINS (mU/mL)5.5±1.05.6±0.8*6.0±
MET (hours/week)44.7±14.338.0±11.726.7±12.4*†2.590.041
hsCRP (mg/L)0.79±0.140.92±0.171.13±0.232.7180.011
Total energy (kcal/day)‡2783.7 (2572.6–2912.4)2812.5 (2541.9–3139.7)2817.3 (2552.6–3228.1)1.930.051
Carbohydrates (%)‡47.2 (32.8–54.1)46.8 (34.7–57.2)47.1 (34.6–59.3)0.720.249
Proteins (%)‡15.9 (14.8–16.6)16.3 (14.2–17.5)16.1 (14.1–17.3)0.340.177
Lipids (%)‡36.9 (28.9–44.1)36.9 (28.9–43.7)36.8 (28.3–44.5)0.4320.098
Manual work (%)70.866.161.32.1310.043
Office work (%)29.233.938.73.2950.024
Past smokers (%)
Current smokers (%)63.969.867.40.7240.833
Past drinkers (%)47.746.843.62.980.056
Current drinkers (%)52.353.256.41.790.271
Married (%)84.187.880.12.4520.874
Divorced (%)
Single (%)§12.39.2170.9470.826
Level of education (%)2.290.042
Elementary or below46.650.547.5
Junior high school37.232.231.6
High school13.713.616.7
Income (yuan/month)1.150.215
<3000 (%)34.331.928.1
3000–5000 (%)2224.124.1
>5000 (%)43.744.147.7
  • Data were expressed as means±SD for normally distributed parameters, median (IQR 25–75%) for abnormally distributed parameters and proportions for categorical variables. For intergroup comparison analysis, non-normally distributed parameters (including TG, ALAT, ASAT, Cr, AFI, total energy intake and its components) were logarithmically transformed. Differences between multiple groups were tested by ANOVA for continuous variables, and χ2 test was used to test the differences in the distribution of categorical variables.

  • *p<0.05 compared with tertile 1 (2.2–5.0 h).

  • †p<0.05 compared with tertile 2 (2.2–5.0 h).

  • ‡Non-normally distributed parameter.

  • §‘Single people’ include male participants who are unmarried or windowed.

  • 2-hPG, 2 hour postchallenge plasma glucose; ALAT, alanine aminotransferase; ANOVA, analysis of variance; ASAT, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; Cr, creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; F/χ2, differences between groups were tested using ANOVA for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables; FINS, fasting serum insulin; FLI, fatty liver index; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; hsCRP, high-sensitive C reactive protein; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MET, metabolic equivalent; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.