Table 2

Comparison of dietary (stratified by tertile) and clinical characteristics (stratified by age decades) among LUTS/BPH participants from the three geographic regions

CharacteristicsNorthern China (n=1814)Southern China (n=407)Northwestern China (n=363)p Value
Dietary (monthly)
Meat, fish and eggs, n (%)
 Low (<16 times/month)347 (19.1)7 (1.7)82 (22.6)
 Moderate (16–28 times/month)503 (27.7)86 (21.1)242 (66.7)
 High (>28 times/month)964 (53.1)314 (77.1)39 (10.7)<0.001
Vegetables
 Low (<24 times/month)606 (33.4)134 (32.9)121 (33.3)
 Moderate (24–32 times/month)542 (29.9)180 (44.2)240 (66.1)
 High (>32 times/month)666 (36.7)93 (22.9)2 (0.6)<0.001
Milk and dairy products
 Low (<4 times/month)594 (32.7)188 (46.2)67 (18.5)
 Moderate (4–12 times/month)561 (30.9)134 (32.9)161 (44.4)
 High (>12 times/month)659 (36.3)85 (20.9)135 (37.2)<0.001
Clinical (means±SDs)
PV
 50–60 years (n=387)27.3±13.430.0±13.723.1±8.20.007
 60–70 years (n=977)32.6±16.938.8±19.727.6±14.5<0.001
 70–80 years (n=931)35.4±21.442.2±21.534.5±27.50.004
 ≥80 years (n=289)35.8±20.756.9±23.437.3±19.1<0.001
 All (n=2584)33.1±19.039.6±20.828.8±19.2<0.001
IPSS
 50–60 years (n=387)14.89±5.9112.68±4.9014.92±44.550.002
 60–70 years (n=977)15.96±6.1013.86±5.4317.90±5.57<0.001
 70–80 years (n=931)16.80±6.5915.95±6.1221.67±5.46<0.001
 ≥80 years (n=289)18.26±6.3919.32±6.3622.55±8.050.066
 All (n=2584)16.44±6.3714.84±5.9518.65±5.96<0.001
IIEF-5
 50–60 years (n=387)15 (8, 20)19 (15, 21)13 (11, 15)<0.001
 60–70 years (n=977)12 (5, 17)13 (9, 17)9 (7, 11)<0.001
 70–80 years (n=931)5 (0, 13)3 (0, 8)1 (0, 5)<0.001
 ≥80 years (n=289)2 (0, 12)1 (0, 5)0 (0, 1)0.003
 All (n=2584)9 (1, 15)10 (3, 16)8 (5, 12)<0.001
  • Means and SDs were used to present normally distributed continuous variables, and medians (q1, q3) were used to present non-normally distributed variables (IIEF-5 score).

  • A p<0.05 by the Kruskal-Wallis test or one-way ANOVA was considered significant.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; IIEF-5, International Index of Erectile Function 5; IPSS, International Prostate Symptom Score; LUTS, lower urinary tract symptoms; PV, prostate volume.