Table 3

Individual and situational characteristics and Impact of Event Scale score: descriptive findings and findings from repeated measures analyses

IES scoreMultiple model for individual and situational characteristics jointly
ThenNowMean
Main effectX time
nEstimate (SE)p ValueEstimate (SE)p Value
Intercept20.06 (5.12)0.0005
Time17.728.9913.36−15.07 (3.54)<0.0001
Situational characteristics
Level of harm for patient
 None18213.558.4611.0100
 Mild21615.017.4311.221.57 (1.75)0.3671−2.45 (1.34)0.0682
 Moderate20819.118.5513.836.75 (1.77)0.0001−5.94 (1.36)<0.0001
 Severe8122.2712.2317.2510.69 (2.33)<0.0001−4.95 (1.79)0.0059
 Death22620.7410.1415.449.78 (1.79)<0.0001−6.30 (1.37)<0.0001
Time of incident
 <3 months ago7812.9111.2612.08−4.87 (3.08)0.11349.88 (2.36)<0.0001
 3–6 months ago6211.988.6810.33−1.76 (2.99)0.03699.35 (2.49)0.0002
 6 months–1 year ago8316.3610.9813.67−2.22 (3.00)0.46036.60 (2.31)0.0043
 1–3 years ago20417.119.0513.08−3.71 (2.60)0.15475.15 (2.00)0.0101
 3–5 years ago11017.627.7712.70−4.88 (2.84)0.08604.41 (2.19)0.0440
 5–10 years ago14020.399.1114.75−1.03 (2.71)0.70362.56 (2.08)0.2186
 10–15 years ago10620.618.0814.34−1.07 (2.78)0.69950.85 (2.14)0.6899
 15–20 years ago7020.448.1614.30−0.85 (3.02)0.77791.10 (2.32)0.6358
 >20 years ago5919.597.5613.5800
Sense of responsibility
 No46413.927.6410.7800
 Yes44921.6310.3816.017.43 (1.18)<0.0001−4.44 (0.91)<0.0001
Individual characteristics
Personal characteristics
 Gender
  Male25315.347.8711.60−5.61 (1.35)<0.00013.93 (1.03)0.0001
  Female66018.639.4114.0200
 Profession
  Physician18620.179.1714.67−0.38 (2.90)0.8951−0.71 (2.22)0.7491
  Nurse68216.858.8212.84−2.79 (2.65)0.29282.15 (2.03)0.2898
  Midwife4520.6410.7615.7000
 Experience
  <6 months328.3323.0025.67–*
  6 months–1 year1510.134.807.47
  1–3 years4311.215.748.48
  3–5 years7115.968.7512.35
  5–10 years10118.358.4213.38
  10–15 years13718.298.8913.59
  15–20 years11617.809.3613.58
  >20 years38918.969.6314.30
Personal resources
 Self-efficacy
  Low3923.339.4416.3800
  Average60418.809.4614.13−2.70 (2.64)0.30703.67 (2.03)0.0705
  High11416.218.6512.43−4.51 (3.09)0.14595.47 (2.38)0.0215
 Resilience
  Low2419.889.7914.83–*
  Average50019.3710.1014.74
  High23316.977.6412.30
 Optimism
  Low9526.3713.4219.8900
  Average52317.809.1013.45−6.52 (1.80)0.00032.76 (1.38)0.0467
  High13916.557.4211.99−7.13 (2.26)0.00161.48 (1.74)0.0571
Coping strategies
 Support seeking
  Low†47317.619.3713.49–*
  High44017.838.5813.20
 Active coping and planning
  Low†51815.097.6911.3900
  High39521.1510.6915.924.62 (1.15)<0.0001−1.68 (0.88)0.0571
  • *Experience, resilience and support seeking coping strategies were not statistical significant on psychological impact and/or recovery and therefore not included in the multiple model.

  • †Low is score ≤median; high is score >median.

  • IES, Impact of Event Scale.