Table 1

Prevalence estimates of complete immunisation in urban poor settlements from other surveys from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Place, state/year of survey*Setting, sampling and sample sizeComplete (C), partial (P), no (N) immunisation† (%)Factors associated with no/partial immunisation
Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh22 (2010)Urban slum
30×7 cluster sample (n=210)
C=61.9%, P=31.43%, N=6.67%
BCG to measles attrition=32.8%
Unadjusted analysis: religion, education of mother and father
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh32 (2005)Urban slum
WHO 30 sample method (n=510)
C=44.1%, P=32%, N=23.9%
Overall dropout rate: 33.24%
Adjusted analysis: socioeconomic
status, religion, birth order, place of childbirth, type of family
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh27 (2012)Attendees of Urban Health Centre (n=198)C=74.7%, P=11.1%, N=14.1%Unadjusted: larger households, place of childbirth, mother education
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh33 (2013)*Eight clusters (Mohalla) in city
Random sample (n=450)
C=62.7%, P=24.4%, N=12.9%
BCG to measles attrition=29%
Not explored
Rewa, Madhya Pradesh34 (2012–13)Urban slum
30×7 cluster sample (n=210)
C=72.4%, P=21.9%, N=5.7%Unadjusted: no association seen
Jamnagar, Gujarat35 (2005)Urban slums
30×7 cluster sample (n=210)
C=73.3%, P=23.81%, N=2.86%Not explored
National Capital territory, Delhi12 (2010)*Random sample from
30 migrant well-settled colonies (n=407)
C=80.8%, N=4.9%
C=60.2% (including hepatitis B vaccine), hepatitis B=68.4%
Not explored
Rewa, Madhya Pradesh36 (2013*)Urban slum
30×7 cluster sample (n=210)
C=60.7%, P=32.7%, N=6.6%
BCG to measles attrition=19.5%
Not explored
Mumbai, Maharashtra23 (2008)Urban Slums
Lot quality technique (n=352)
C=88.07%, N=11.9%Unadjusted: gender, religion, mother and father education, mother and father occupation, SES score, birth order, presence of immunisation card and place of birth
Ahmedabad, Gujarat37 (2006)30 slum clusters (n=138)C=70.3%, P=29.7%, N=0%
BCG to measles attrition=13.9%
Not explored
Bijapur, Karnataka38 (2011)All eligible children from purposively chosen 7 slum clusters (n=155)C=34.84%, P=62.54%, N=2.58%
Overall attrition=57.05%
Not explored
West Delhi25 (2013)2-stage probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling (9 clusters) (n=670)DPT 3 dose=80.5%Adjusted analysis: health literacy of mothers
East Delhi13 (2003–2004)Systematic random sampling from 2 urbanised villages (n=693)C=41%
Hepatitis B=24.3%
Adjusted analysis: place of childbirth, immunisation card, mother education
Dhaka, Bangladesh39 (2006–2007)2 purposively sampled urban slum (random selection of children) (n=529)C=43%, P=33%, N=2%
Invalid doses=22%
Not reported
Pakistan40 (2002)All infants living in neglected colony in Multan city (n=993)C=18%, P=50.8%, N=31.2%Unadjusted analysis:
mother's literacy, father's literacy, household income, working mothers
Dhaka, Bangladesh41 (1995)Zone 3 of Dhaka city, 5940 households containing 160 geographical clustersC=38%Adjusted analysis: number of living children, mother's education and employment status, distance to nearest immunisation centre
  • *Wherever the time of survey is not known, we have given the time of publication.

  • †The definition of complete immunisation was (three doses of OPV, DPT, one dose of measles and BCG) and the age group was from 12 to 23 months.

  • DPT, diphtheria–pertussis–tetanus vaccine; OPV, oral polio vaccine; SES, socioeconomic status.