Table 3

Impact of holding the stillborn baby on mental health and well-being

Held % (n)Did not hold % (n)
N=394N=74OR (95% CI)ORadj (95% CI)
Mental and physical health 3 months after birth (n=468)
 Depression (p=0.358)44.4 (175)37.8 (28)1.31 (0.78 to 2.20)1.21 (0.71 to 2.07)
 Anxiety* (p=0.049)41.4 (163)28.4 (21)1.86* (1.07 to 3.24)1.64 (0.93 to 2.90)
 PTSD symptoms** (p=0.009)53.8 (212)36.5 (27)1.93* (1.15 to 3.24)1.70 (0.99 to 2.90)
 Poor physical health (p=0.485)12.4 (49)16.2 (12)0.70 (0.35 to 1.40)0.72 (0.34 to 1.48)
Mental and physical health 9 months after birth (n=468)
 Depression (p=0.112)25.6 (101)16.2 (12)1.71 (0.88 to 3.31)1.65 (0.84 to 3.24)
 Anxiety* (p=0.014)32.7 (129)17.6 (13)2.26* (1.19 to 4.27)2.12* (1.11 to 4.04)
 PTSD symptoms* (p=0.017)38.3 (151)23.0 (17)2.01* (1.13 to 3.61)1.77 (0.98 to 3.21)
 Poor physical health (p=0.541)4.3 (17)6.8 (5)0.73 (0.24 to 2.25)0.91 (0.28 to 2.96)
Relationship difficulties 3 months after birth
 With partner (p=0.699)17.5 (69)14.9 (11)1.20 (0.60 to 2.39)1.07 (0.53 to 2.17)
 With family (p=0.056)22.8 (90)12.2 (9)2.11* (1.01 to 4.41)1.98 (0.94 to 4.18)
Relationship difficulties 9 months after birth
 With partner (p=0.999)8.9 (35)8.1 (6)1.09 (0.44 to 2.69)1.03 (0.41 to 2.58)
 With family* (p=0.012)14.0 (55)2.7 (2)5.77* (1.37 to 24.21)5.33* (1.26 to 22.53)
  • ORadj: with adjustment for multiple pregnancy, ethnicity and fertility treatment.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.