Table 1

Characteristics of trailing research (Stensaker,23 p.152)

ObjectiveScientific knowledge
Provide real-time feedback to organisations
Enable learning and collaborative knowledge generation
Role of researcherCritical outsider yet integrated insider
Not an active change agent and has no explicit stake in change outcomes
Dialogue partner and trustful relationship with ‘insiders’
Respondent–researcher relationshipsOften formal contract based
Division of roles (researcher/participants/stakeholders)