Table 2

Association between volunteering and GHQ, fully adjusted (n=66 343 person-years), BHPS (1996–2008)

VariablesModel 1Model 2
CoefficientSECoefficientSE
Constant7.1270.3747.0920.379
Age−0.0180.003*−0.0360.006*
Age2−0.0020.0001*−0.0020.0003*
Age30.000040.00001*0.000040.00001*
Volunteering
 FrequentRef
 Infrequent0.2700.096*0.2880.129†
 Rare0.3130.111*0.3330.149†
 None0.4540.082*0.4940.110*
Age×volunteering
 Age×frequent volunteeringRef
 Age×infrequent volunteering0.0160.007†
 Age×rare volunteering0.0180.007†
 Age×none volunteering0.0200.005*
Variances
 Level: person9.0710.1989.0730.198
 Level: measure16.7950.10916.7930.109
  • *Significant at 1%.

  • †Significant at 5% level.

  • Model 1: age and volunteering, fully adjusted; Model 2: Model 1+age×volunteering, fully adjusted.

  • Full adjustment: sex, marital status, number of children, highest qualification, social class, income, general health and active member of organisations; volunteering: frequent, at least once a week; infrequent, at least once a month or several times a year; rare, once or less a year.

  • BHPS, British Household Panel Survey; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire.