Table 1

Definition of the categories and subcategories used in analyses and their relation to the research questions

CategoriesSubcategoriesDefinitionItems in the kaizen template included in the analysis
Situation triggering an improvement suggestionProactiveIdea for improvement, not clearly stemming from a problem5, 6
ReactiveA reaction to a problem encountered that is clearly described
Organisational processes addressed26Primary clinical processSet of activities to diagnose, treat and care for patients and address specific health problems5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 16
Support processesSet of activities that support the primary clinical process but do not (alone) improve patient health (eg, diagnostic processes, medication management)
Technical/administrative ProcessesSet of activities that deal with the structures and infrastructures needed for the general functioning of the hospital that not directly involve patients or healthcare professionals (eg, payment of staff or the supply of goods or services, physical environment)
Complexity level in the issues addressed and improvement actions proposed27SimpleOne or very few components, interventions, outcomes, actors and/or units are involved5–6, 9, 12, 15, 16
ComplexMany components, interventions, outcomes, actors and/or units involved
Outcomes addressed/expected10OperationalReduces non-value-adding activities, leads to increased effectiveness, efficiency and productivity (eg, increased service quality and patient safety, better use of resources)9, 12, 15, 16
SociotechnicalImproves aspects related to staff and work environment (eg, job satisfaction, stress, worker health, safety and well-being, work performance, innovation and creativity, organisational involvement, and organisational citizenship)