Table 4

Quadratic non-linear multivariate-adjusted HR and 95% CI for deaths from all causes, CVDs, stroke and stroke subtypes, for the highest quintile versus the lowest quintile of dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio in total participants

HR(95% CI)
Model I
 All causes1.18(1.08 to 1.29)
 CVD1.35(1.17 to 1.56)
 Stroke1.42(1.17 to 1.74)
 Ischaemic stroke1.42(1.08 to 1.88)
 Haemorrhagic stroke1.55(1.05 to 2.27)
Model II
 All causes1.16(1.06 to 1.27)
 CVD1.38(1.20 to 1.59)
 Stroke1.44(1.18 to 1.76)
 Ischaemic stroke1.42(1.08 to 1.88)
 Haemorrhagic stroke1.56(1.06 to 2.30)
Model III
 All causes1.16(1.06 to 1.27)
 CVD1.39(1.20 to 1.61)
 Stroke1.43(1.17 to 1.76)
 Ischaemic stroke1.42(1.07 to 1.90)
 Haemorrhagic stroke1.57(1.05 to 2.34)
  • Model I was adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking and drinking habits.

  • Model II was adjusted for variables in model I plus diabetes and serum total cholesterol.

  • Model III was adjusted for variables in model II plus per cent energy intake from protein and total fat.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease.